Asserts that the pure carbon of which diamonds consist is '"perfectly transparent to the RöntgenRöntgen, Wilhelm Conrad
DSB CloseView the register entry >> rays"—which supply "an easy and infallible test for genuine diamonds"'. Goes on to describe the method of manufacturing diamonds through the liquefaction of carbon developed by Ferdinand-Frédéric-Henri MoissanMoissan,
DSB CloseView the register entry >>, which is 'one of the triumphs of high-temperature chemistry' and was made possible only by the 'invention of the electric furnace' which can reach temperatures of 'near 3,600 deg. C.' and requires the use of 'boiling lead' as a 'cooling bath'. The largest diamond manufactured so far, however, was 'only one-fiftieth of an inch across, and within three months broke up'.
In a statistical survey of the all the articles published in the Forum and the Nineteenth CenturyNineteenth Century
CloseView the register entry >> between 1888 and 1897, finds 'nothing to show that Science is receding before Religion. The number and interest of the articles remain about the same for the decade'.
Details a 'hideous form of human traffic carried on in China, by which human beings are transformed into the semblance of animals for purposes of exhibition. The skin is taken from the whole surface of the body, and replaced with the skins of animals, generally bears and dogs, an operation lasting a long time and causing intolerable agony. The victim is then made dumb to complete the illusion and to take away all possibility of complaint'. Records the case of one Chinese man whose 'whole body was covered with the skin of a dog', but who could 'stand and sit, make inarticulate sounds, and generally act as a rational being', and also notes that a 'still more horrible means of obtaining human monsters is by grafting infants on to grown men, the blood vessels being joined'.
Review of Reviews, 20 (1899), 174.
Kissing: Its Origin and Extension. By Professor Lombroso
Gives a timely account of 'the genesis of the bullet which discussions at the Hague [during the recent International Peace ConferenceInternational Peace Conference, the Hague CloseView the register entry >>] have made famous', noting that the deadly bullet is 'named after the place near Calcutta where it was made'.
Reports that 'Since NapoleonNapoleon III, Emperor of France (originally
Louis Napoléon (Charles Louis Napoléon Bonaparte))
CBD CloseView the register entry >> surrendered at Sedan in 1870 the population of India has increased by seventy millions, and at the end of the next century George HamiltonHamilton, Lord George Francis
ODNB CloseView the register entry >> calculates that its population will be doubled. We cannot again invoke the Malthusian trinity of war, pestilence, and famine to keep the population within the means of subsistence; but the problem of feeding double the number of people within the present limits of Hindostan is not exactly a task to be coveted' (228). Suggests that 'the KaiserWilhelm II, Emperor of Germany and King of Prussia
CBD CloseView the register entry >>, like our QueenVictoria, Queen of the United Kingdom of Great
Britain and Ireland, and Empress of India
ODNB CloseView the register entry >>, has a firm grip on the doctrine of spirit return' (231). Also observes that the Indian 'plague, which is still devastating Poona, has arrived at Lisbon and Oporto. Having come to Europe, it will probably be a most effective sanitationist. Note that the hot weather sent the death-rate in Dublin up from 23 to 38 per 1000 in the last weeks in August' (235).
Puts on record 'Mr. Rhodes'Rhodes, Cecil John
ODNB CloseView the register entry >> kind invitation to me [i.e. Stead] to be present at the laying of the last rail [of the currently half-built Cape to Cairo railway line] on January 20th, 1909'.
Review of Reviews, 20 (1899), 285.
The Industrial Regeneration of Italy. How It is to be Effected
Observes that several newspaper reports have suggested that the forthcoming Exposition Universelle Internationale de Paris en 1900Exposition Universelle Internationale (1900), Paris CloseView the register entry >> might be boycotted after the recent guilty verdict in the court-martial of Alfred DreyfusDreyfus, Alfred
CBD CloseView the register entry >>, although, in fact, 'of the two thousand intending British exhibitors, only twenty-three had indicated in a more or less tentative fashion their intention to withdraw' (336–37). Also reports that 'In welcome contrast to the unbridled denunciation of France and the French which followed the verdict at Rennes, there has been a welcome interchange of international hospitalities between the British AssociationBritish Association for the Advancement of Science
CloseView the register entry >>, which met at Dover, and the similar French AssociationAssociation Française pour l'Advancement des Sciences
CloseView the register entry >> which was meeting at Boulogne. It is much to be desired in the interests of international fraternity that these visits of courtesy should increase and multiply' (337–38).
Describes, among other things, a new instrument which is a 'combination in effect of the principle of telescope and camera', as well as a successful 'experiment of wireless telegraphy between a station on the earth and a free balloon'. Claims that, if it had been conducted only a few years earlier, it could have meant that 'AndreeAndrée, Salomon August
RLIN CloseView the register entry >> and his companions [see Anon, 'The Progress of the World', Review of Reviews, 16 (1897), 107–18] might have sent word of their adventures and been rescued in time' (382).
As part of a general protest against the outbreak of war with the Boers in South Africa, warns that 'we are squandering our wealth broadcast in unnecessary war', and 'unless energetic measures are taken to provide technical education for our people, we shall be unable to face foreign competition' (445). Remarks that 'Germany, which has just been celebrating the centennial of the foundation of technical education, has no intention of standing still. The EmperorWilhelm II, Emperor of Germany and King of Prussia
CBD CloseView the register entry >> has placed the technical high schools of Prussia on an equality with the universities, and authorised the technical university to confer the degree of Doctor-Engineer. It is these schools which [...] have succeeded in raising German industry in almost all branches to the level of England, and in some cases, especially in regard to chemistry and electricity, in overtaking it' (445–46). Also reports the death of Grant AllenAllen, Grant (Charles Grant Blairfindie)
ODNB CloseView the register entry >>, 'one of the most genial, industrious, and many-sided of our latter-day English men of letters'. Remembers Allen fondly as 'an old friend of mine', but observes that 'on questions relating to the sexes his views were, to say the least, peculiar', and while his novel The Woman Who DidAllen, Grant
1895b. The Woman Who Did, Keynotes Series 8, London: John Lane
CloseView the register entry >> 'scandalised a good many people', it was mere 'milk and water compared with his esoteric doctrine'. (447)
Contends that the ideal of imperialistic rule in Africa which Cecil J RhodesRhodes, Cecil John
ODNB CloseView the register entry >> works tirelessly to achieve is shaped by the fact that he is 'a Darwinian', and 'believes in the gospel of evolution, of the survival of the fittest, of progress by natural selection' (460). For him, the 'perfecting of the fittest species among the animals, or of races among men, and then the conferring upon the perfected species or race the title deeds of the future' is 'the way in which God is governing His world' (460–61), and the most pressing question of the present age is 'which race [...] seems most likely to be the Divine instrument in carrying out the Divine idea over the whole of this planet'? The answer, of course, is that in 'the struggle for existence the White race [has] unquestionably come out on top', but, more specifically, the 'English race—the English-speaking man, whether British, American, Australian, or South African' has reached 'the highwater mark of the race up till now', and future 'Progress will consist in bringing up mankind to their level'. (461)
Engineering, Metrology, Specialization, Declinism, National Efficiency
Explains that the 'standardisation practised in the United States explains [...] the Americans getting the orders for the Atbara Bridge, for many British locomotives, and for an ever increasing number of machine-tools. American makers have bridges, locomotives and what not ready made or readily makeable according to specific patterns and standards. Fresh plans and specifications are not required for each new order'. On the other hand, 'English engineers are believed to be "too fond of their own designs, and too unwilling to adopt those of other people"'.
Animal Behaviour, Palaeontology, Monstrosities, Anti-Scientism, Monographs, Reading, Truth
Recommends numerous books as Christmas presents for children, including Andrew Lang'sLang, Andrew
ODNB CloseView the register entry >> volume of 'truly wonderful stories'. Comments that 'Anticipating the question, "Are your stories all true?" Mr. Lang confesses in a brilliant preface that they are not all true, for the Phœnix, at any rate, is never met with in any known part of the world; but he points out the difference between the scientific animals (whose bones are now stones) and the unscientific ones, like the Sea Serpent and the Fire Drake. It is comforting to find Mr. Lang admitting after all that there may be plenty of strange animals which scientific men have not yet dissected and called by long names—those, for instance, which have been remembered and called "Dragons". "For, if there were never any Dragons, why did all sorts of nations tell stories about them?"'. Adds that 'Mr. Lang says this is not altogether a scientific book, but there is much more that is true in it than in some other books he has published'. (527)
Observes that it is 'interesting to note how the experience of this campaign [against the Boers in South Africa] has confirmed many of the conclusions which have been set forth in a popular form by M. BlochBloch, Jan (or Iwan)
WBI CloseView the register entry >> in his book on the future of war, published in this country under the title of "Is War Now Impossible?"Bloch, Jan 1899.
Is War Now Impossible? Being an Abridgement of "The War of the Future in Its
Technical, Economic and Political Relations". With a Prefatory Conversation
with the Author by W. T.
Stead, Russian Library 2, London: Grant Richards
CloseView the register entry >>. According to M. Bloch, the war of the future will be a war of sieges. Modern arms have so enormously strengthened the defensive that a frontal attack will be practically impossible, and the fate of campaigns in the future will be decided, not so much by the fighting of the soldiers, as by their capacity to hold each other in check until ammunition or food gives out on one side' (569–70).
Section: Leading Articles in the Reviews
Review of Reviews, 20 (1899), 579.
Gunnery Terms Explained. A Guide for the Amateur Strategist
Suggests that Kropotkin's 'fascinating' article 'does a great deal to compensate us for the failure of our celestial fireworks expected last month' (see Anon, 'The Expected Shower of Meteors', Review of Reviews, 20 (1899), 494).
Laments the fact that 'Grant AllenAllen, Grant (Charles Grant Blairfindie)
ODNB CloseView the register entry >> died at a moment when we had most need of him, and at the saddest time for himself. He lived to see not the fulfilment of the civilised ideals for which he had battled so long, but the overwhelming triumph of all the reactionary ideals which he hated and feared'.
Hospitals, Medical Practitioners, Disease, Obstetrics, Gender, Morality, Controversy
Exposes the appalling conditions at the Allgemeines KrankenhausAllgemeines Krankenhaus, Vienna CloseView the register entry >>, Vienna, where 'For the sanctities of feminine reserve there is simply not the smallest regard shown. The patients in the obstetric ward [are] exposed in the most callous and brutal manner', and the 'dying are disturbed in their extremity to be made the subject of tutorial demonstration or of students' inspection'.