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The Academy. A Monthly Record of Literature, Learning, Science and Art [1st]  Introduction
Volume 2  (October 1870 to December 1871)
Issue [1] (22 October 1870)Expand    Contract

Academy,  2 (1870–71), 1.

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Our First Year

Editor, pseud.  [Charles E C B Appleton] Appleton, Charles Edward Cutts Birchall (1841–79) ODNB
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Genre:

Editorial

Subjects:

Periodicals, Reading, Science Communication, Specialization, Internationalism, Religion, Publishing


    Reports that the 'ACADEMY Academy (1869–1900+) Waterloo Directory
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was set on foot in answer to a widely felt and constantly expressed dissatisfaction with the existing organs of literary and scientific criticism', and that it has largely succeeded in its role as 'a journal which should systematically survey the European literary and scientific movement as a whole, and pass judgement upon books not from an insular, still less from a partisan, but from a cosmopolitan point of view'. It has also succeeded as a 'critical journal [...] on which the general reader might rely for guidance through the waste of superficial and ephemeral literature by which he is surrounded and through which he has neither the time nor perhaps the ability to guide himself'. While the circulation figures have 'exceeded our most sanguine expectations', the necessity of 'transfer[ring] the publication of the ACADEMY to a new firm' has 'grown out of our theological position'. Explains that 'Mr. Murray Murray, John (1808–92) ODNB
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[...] did not call in question the fact of our theological impartiality, but disapproved of it', and that he has thus 'offered to resign all his interest in the copyright of the Journal'. Notes that while certain sections will be increased in size, 'the purely scientific portion of the ACADEMY [is] now completely organized' and will remain the same as before, although with the addition of 'some branches of Natural Science which from want of space have been hitherto neglected'. (1)



Section: General Literature and Art

Academy,  2 (1870–71), 5–6.

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[Review of Alpine Flowers for English Gardens and The Wild Garden, by William Robinson]

F Palliser Palliser, Fanny Bury (née Marryat) (1805–78) ODNB
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Genre:

Review

Publications reviewed:

Robinson 1870a, Robinson, William 1870a. Alpine Flowers for English Gardens, London: J. Murray
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Robinson 1870b Robinson, William 1870b. The Wild Garden; or, Our Groves and Gardens Made Beautiful by the Naturalisation of Hardy Exotic Plants: With a Chapter on the Gardens of British Wild Flowers, London: J. Murray
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Subjects:

Botany, Horticulture, Collecting

People mentioned:

William Robinson Robinson, William (1838–1935) ODNB
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Section: Theology

Academy,  2 (1870–71), 10.

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[Review of Ecclesiastical History of England, by John Stoughton]

Mark Pattison Pattison, Mark (1813–84) ODNB
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Genre:

Review

Publications reviewed:

Stoughton 1870 Stoughton, John 1870. Ecclesiastical History of England–The Church of the Restoration, London: Jackson, Walford, and Hodder
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Subjects:

Historiography, Progress, History of Science


    Complains that none of the events discussed in John Stoughton's Stoughton, John (1807–97) ODNB
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book are 'brought within the scope of the great European progress. No law of development is discernible in his pages. History under such treatment is a succession of casualties, and science and philosophy are what people happen to be thinking' (10).



Section: Science and Philosophy

Academy,  2 (1870–71), 11–12.

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[Review of Pre-Historic Times and The Origin of Civilization, by John Lubbock, and Researches into the Early History of Mankind, by Edward B Tylor]  [1/2]George Rolleston, '[Review of Pre-Historic Times and The Origin of Civilization, by Sir John Lubbock, and Researches into the Early History of Mankind, by Edward B Tylor]', Academy, 2 (1870–71), 38–40

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George Rolleston Rolleston, George (1829–81) DSB
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Genre:

Review, Serial

Publications reviewed:

Lubbock 1869, Lubbock, John 1869. Pre-Historic Times: As Illustrated by Ancient Remains and the Manners and Customs of Modern Savages, 2nd edn, London: Williams and Norgate
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Lubbock 1870, Lubbock, John 1870. The Origin of Civilisation and the Primitive Condition of Man: Mental and Social Conditions of Savages, London: Longmans, Green, and Co.
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Tylor 1870 Tylor, Edward B 1870. Researches into the Early History of Mankind and the Development of Civilization, 2nd edn, London: J. Murray
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Subjects:

Anthropology, Human Species, Evolution, Progress, Darwinism, Superstition, Class


    Noting that 'the material points of fact and of inference' on which John Lubbock Lubbock, Sir John, 4th Baronet and 1st Baron Avebury (1834–1913) DSB ODNB
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and Edward B Tylor Tylor, Sir Edward Burnett (1832–1917) ODNB
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differ 'are of but infinitesimal moment', Rolleston examines their equally resolute opposition to the 'doctrines which Mr. Tylor has styled "degenerationist"'. Both of them, he argues, 'alike regard civilization as the result of a long series of slowly accumulating improvements', and, as such, there is a 'curious correspondence [...] which Sir John Lubbock certainly and Mr. Tylor probably will be slow to repudiate [...] between their speculations and the lines of argument which Mr. Darwin Darwin, Charles Robert (1809–82) DSB
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has used in his Origin of Species Darwin, Charles Robert 1859. On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection; or, The Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life, London: John Murray
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'. (11) Although both 'authors recognize, and indeed dwell upon the facts of the retention still amongst us of customs which can only be explained as being rudiments and reminiscences of the rites and practices of savagery', Rolleston complains that 'neither of them has [...] drawn sufficient attention to the fact [...] that these rudimentary indications are by no means to be sought or found in one stratum or level of society alone'. In fact, he goes on, 'in those numerically small spheres of society which are largely endowed with this world's goods, modes of thought, and even actual practices, which can be legitimately affiliated to those of savagery, may be proportionately as rife as they are in the secluded and pauperized villages of agricultural and mountainous districts'. (12)



Academy,  2 (1870–71), 12–14.

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[Review of Lay Sermons, Addresses, and Reviews, by Thomas H Huxley, and On the Scientific Use of the Imagination, by John Tyndall]

James R Thursfield Thursfield, Sir James Richard (1840–1923) ODNB
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Genre:

Review

Publications reviewed:

Huxley 1870, Huxley, Thomas Henry 1870. Lay Sermons, Addresses, and Reviews, London: Macmillan & Co.
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Tyndall 1870b Tyndall, John 1870b. On the Scientific Use of the Imagination: A Discourse Delivered Before the British Association at Liverpool on Friday Evening, 16th September 1870, London: Longmans, Green and Co.
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Subjects:

Scientific Naturalism, Popularization, Education, Religion, Truth, Controversy, Materialism, Imagination

People mentioned:

Thomas H Huxley, Huxley, Thomas Henry (1825–95) DSB
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John Tyndall, Tyndall, John (1820–93) DSB
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Herbert Spencer Spencer, Herbert (1820–1903) DSB
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Subsection: Scientific Notes

Academy,  2 (1870–71), 14.

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Natural History

Anon

Genre:

Regular Feature, News-Digest



[1] Beetles in Wasps' Nests

Subjects:

Entomology, Parasitology

People mentioned:

Thomas A Chapman Chapman, Thomas Algernon (1842–1921) WBI
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[2] Parthenogenesis in the Pupa State of Insects

Subjects:

Entomology, Animal Development



Academy,  2 (1870–71), 14–15.

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Physiology

Anon

Genre:

Regular Feature, News-Digest



[1] Dr. Meynert on the Histology of the Brain

Subjects:

Neurology

People mentioned:

Theodor Meynert, Meynert, Theodor (1833–92) WBI
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Saloman Stricker Stricker, Saloman (1834–98) WBI
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[2] Epileptic Guinea-Pigs

Subjects:

Neurology, Heredity, Mental Illness

People mentioned:

Charles-É Brown-Séquard Brown-Séquard, Charles-Édouard (1817–94) DSB
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[3] Researches on Digestion

Subjects:

Physiological Chemistry


[4] Tactile Hairs of Mammalia

Subjects:

Neurology


[5] On the Connective Tissue of the Brain

Subjects:

Neurology, Cell Biology


[6] Development of the Heart

Subjects:

Physiology, Pathology


[7] The Organ of Taste in the Tadpole

Subjects:

Physiology



Academy,  2 (1870–71), 15–16.

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Botany and Geology

Anon

Genre:

Regular Feature, News-Digest



[1] Do Plants Absorb Moisture Through Their Leaves?

Subjects:

Botany


[2] Self-Fertilisation and Cross-Fertilisation of Plants

Subjects:

Botany

People mentioned:

Alfred W Bennett, Bennett, Alfred William (1833–1902) ODNB
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Charles R Darwin Darwin, Charles Robert (1809–82) DSB
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[3] Colossal Fossil Sea-Weed

Subjects:

Palaeontology, Botany

People mentioned:

John W Dawson, Dawson, Sir John William (1820–99) DSB ODNB
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William Carruthers, Carruthers, William (1830–1922) WBI
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Joseph D Hooker Hooker, Sir Joseph Dalton (1817–1911) DSB ODNB
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Academy,  2 (1870–71), 16.

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Chemistry

Anon

Genre:

Regular Feature, News-Digest



[1] Oxygen, Ozone, and Antozone

Subjects:

Gas Chemistry


[2] Classification of Sugars

Subjects:

Organic Chemistry



Academy,  2 (1870–71), 16.

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Physics and Astronomy

Anon

Genre:

Regular Feature, News-Digest



[1] On the Influence of a Roughened Surface on the Emission of Heat

Subjects:

Heat, Physics

People mentioned:

Heinrich G Magnus Magnus, Heinrich Gustav (1802–70) DSB
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[2] Dispersive Powers of Gases and Vapours

Subjects:

Light, Physics, Spectroscopy


[3] A Novel Way of Studying the Stars

Subjects:

Astronomy

People mentioned:

Richard A Proctor Proctor, Richard Anthony (1837–88) DSB
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Issue [2] (15 November 1870)Expand    Contract

Section: General Literature and Art

Academy,  2 (1870–71), 29–30.

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[Review of Traditions and Hearthside Stories of West Cornwall, by William Bottrell]

C W Boase Boase, Charles William (1828–95) ODNB
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Genre:

Review

Publications reviewed:

Bottrell 1870 Bottrell, William 1870. Traditions and Hearthside Stories of West Cornwall, Penzance: printed for the author
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Subjects:

Human Species, Anthropology, Race, Comparative Philology, Nomenclature


    Observes that 'Not only was the Indo-European race proved to be One by comparative philology, but the same conclusion was arrived at by a comparison of popular fables (the proper name of the science has not yet been invented)', although 'as the investigation has extended, this conclusion has become uncertain; for some of the popular tales are found to be widely spread among other races not belonging to the Indo-European stock'. The question as to whether 'such stories [have] been borrowed, or [...] date from a still earlier age, and point to a still higher unity of races [....] is not yet settled, and much previous sifting of the evidence will be required'. (29)



Section: Science and Philosophy

Academy,  2 (1870–71), 38–40.

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[Review of Pre-Historic Times and The Origin of Civilization, by Sir John Lubbock, and Researches into the Early History of Mankind, by Edward B Tylor]  [2/2]George Rolleston, '[Review of Pre-Historic Times and The Origin of Civilization, by John Lubbock, and Researches into the Early History of Mankind, by Edward B Tylor]', Academy, 2 (1870–71), 11–12

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George Rolleston Rolleston, George (1829–81) DSB
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Genre:

Review, Serial

Publications reviewed:

Lubbock 1869, Lubbock, John 1869. Pre-Historic Times: As Illustrated by Ancient Remains and the Manners and Customs of Modern Savages, 2nd edn, London: Williams and Norgate
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Lubbock 1870, Lubbock, John 1870. The Origin of Civilisation and the Primitive Condition of Man: Mental and Social Conditions of Savages, London: Longmans, Green, and Co.
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Tylor 1870 Tylor, Edward B 1870. Researches into the Early History of Mankind and the Development of Civilization, 2nd edn, London: J. Murray
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Subjects:

Anthropology, Human Species, Ethnography, Fieldwork, Specialization, Disciplinarity, Race, Morality, Evolution, Utilitarianism, Progress, Darwinism, Superstition, Class


    Although pointing out 'certain fallacies' amongst the 'enormous array' of facts gathered by John Lubbock Lubbock, Sir John, 4th Baronet and 1st Baron Avebury (1834–1913) DSB ODNB
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and Edward B Tylor Tylor, Sir Edward Burnett (1832–1917) ODNB
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, Rolleston insists that he must not be 'suspected of hinting that if some of these facts should be set aside on examination the whole argument must be looked upon as thereby vitiated'. He warns that the ethnographer must remain cautious as to the value of the testimony of primitive peoples and of the influence of their own position as an observer: 'It is only a little less difficult to judge of the feelings and views of a savage without being a savage one's self, than it is to judge of the mental processes of one of the lower animals, without being received into its sensorium, and yet escaping identification with it'. Also notes that a 'savage has as little to do with his time as Sir John Chester is represented as having in Barnaby Rudge Dickens, Charles 1841. Barnaby Rudge: A Tale of the Riots of 'Eighty, London: Chapman and Hall
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'. (38) Insists on 'the absolute necessity of combining linguistic with other physical science' in ethnographic fieldwork, and comments on the 'ill-informed class who hold that every natural historian must necessarily confine his attention to the material and overlook the moral conditions in any problem which he may enquire into'. Although it is 'of course, neither unnatural nor unlikely that any expert should have a tendency to specialism', it is important that 'a real anthropologist [...] come safely out of this temptation'. Lubbock, for example, is 'inclined to account by reference to the unfortunate (moral and social) circumstances in which half-breeds are generally placed, for the abject or other repulsive characteristics which so often have been attributed to or observed in them'. Complains that Lubbock's 'method of accounting for the genesis of the notions of right and wrong, like that of all other utilitarians, actually presupposes their existence!' (39), and notes that on this point 'the dialecticians for once [have] a real victory over the Natural Historian' (40).



Academy,  2 (1870–71), 40–42.

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[Review of The Gulf Stream, by August Petermann, and 'Ocean Currents', by James Croll]

Keith Johnston, Jun. Johnston, Alexander Keith, the younger (1844–79) ODNB
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Genre:

Review

Publications reviewed:

Petermann 1870, Petermann, August 1870. Der Gulfstrom, und Standplunkt der Thermometrischen Kentniss des Nord-Atlantischen Oceans und Landgebiets im Jahre 1870, Gotha: Justus Perthes
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Croll 1870a, Croll, James 1870a. 'Ocean Currents in Relation to the Distribution of Heat Over the Globe', Philosophical Magazine, 39, 81–106
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Croll 1870b Croll, James 1870b. 'Ocean Currents in Relation to the Physical Theory of Secular Changes of Climate', Philosophical Magazine, 39, 180–94
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Subjects:

Oceanography, Exploration, Hydrography, Natural History, Meteorology, Mapping, Climatology, Geology

People mentioned:

August Petermann, Petermann, August (1822–78) ODNB
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William B Carpenter, Carpenter, William Benjamin (1813–85) DSB
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John G Jeffreys Jeffreys, John Gwyn (1809–85) DSB
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    Discusses various theories of the 'influence of ocean currents on the climatic conditions of the globe in distributing the heat received from the sun', and reports James Croll's Croll, James (1821–90) DSB
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claims that 'without ocean currents the earth would not be habitable' (42).



Subsection: Scientific Notes

Academy,  2 (1870–71), 42–43.

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Geology

Anon

Genre:

Regular Feature, News-Digest



[1] A New Siliceous Deep-Sea Sponge

Subjects:

Microscopy, Invertebrate Zoology, Oceanography

People mentioned:

William S Kent Kent, William Saville (fl. 1875–80) WBI
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[2] On the Embryology of King-Crabs

Subjects:

Embryology, Invertebrate Zoology, Oceanography


[3] Duration of the Cretaceous Epoch

Subjects:

Geology, Oceanography

People mentioned:

William B Carpenter Carpenter, William Benjamin (1813–85) DSB
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[4] Bathybius

Subjects:

Microscopy, Geology, Oceanography, Microbiology


[5] An Existing Coral of Palæozoic Type

Subjects:

Geology, Oceanography, Palaeontology



Academy,  2 (1870–71), 43.

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Physiology

Anon

Genre:

Regular Feature, News-Digest



[1] The Structure of the Cornea

Subjects:

Physiology


[2] Physiology of the Pancreatic Secretion

Subjects:

Physiological Chemistry, Dissection

People mentioned:

Claude Bernard, Bernard, Claude (1813–78) DSB
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Julius Bernstein Bernstein, Julius (1839–1917) DSB
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[3] Connection of Muscular Labour with the Elimination of Nitrogen

Subjects:

Physiological Chemistry

People mentioned:

Justus von Liebig, Liebig, Justus von (1803–73) DSB
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Austin Flint Flint, Austin (1836–1915) WBI
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Academy,  2 (1870–71), 44.

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Botany

Anon

Genre:

Regular Feature, News-Digest



[1] Fertilisation of Compositæ

Subjects:

Botany, Sex, Taxonomy


[2] The Fluid of Pitcher Plants

Subjects:

Botany, Chemistry



Academy,  2 (1870–71), 44.

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Chemistry

Anon

Genre:

Regular Feature, News-Digest



[1] Avogadro's Law

Subjects:

Gas Chemistry, History of Science, Heat, Error

People mentioned:

Amedeo Avogadro, Avogadro, Amedeo (1776–1856) DSB
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Hans P J J Thomsen Thomsen, Hans Peter Jörgen Julius (1826–1909) DSB
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[2] The Water of the Nile

Subjects:

Chemistry, Hydrography


[3] On Ccollpa

Subjects:

Chemistry, Hydrography


[4] On Tollylene-Glycol

Subjects:

Chemistry



Academy,  2 (1870–71), 44–45.

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Physics

Anon

Genre:

Regular Feature, News-Digest



[1] The Spectrum of the Aurora

Subjects:

Spectroscopy


[2] The Aurora and Earth-Currents

Subjects:

Electricity, Measurement


[3] Determination of the Mechanical Equivalent of Heat

Subjects:

Heat, Energy, Measurement

People mentioned:

James P Joule, Joule, James Prescott (1818–89) DSB
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Jules L G Violle Violle, Jules Louis Gabriel (1841–1923) DSB
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[4] Determination of the Ratio of the Two Specific Heats of Gases

Subjects:

Heat, Energy, Electricity


[5] A New Method of Calorimetry

Subjects:

Heat, Measurement

People mentioned:

Robert W E Bunsen Bunsen, Robert Wilhelm Eberhard (1811–99) DSB
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[6] Attraction and Repulsion Caused by Vibration

Subjects:

Physics, Measurement



Section: History and Archæology

Academy,  2 (1870–71), 47–48.

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[Review of Hallamshire, by Joseph Hunter]

T Arnold Arnold, T (fl. 1870) AC1/2/2c/9
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Genre:

Review

Publications reviewed:

Hunter 1869 Hunter, Joseph 1869. Hallamshire, The History and Topography of the Parish of Sheffield in the County of York: With Historical and Descriptive Notices of the Parishes of Ecclesfield, Hansworth, Treeton, and Whiston, and of the Chapelry of Bradfield, a new and enlarged edn by Alfred Gatty, London: printed for the editor
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Subjects:

Industry, Manufactories, Metallurgy, Invention, Railways

People mentioned:

Alfred Gatty Gatty, Alfred (1813–1903) ODNB
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    Observes that the 'invention of cast-steel in the middle of the last century by Benjamin Huntsman Huntsman, Benjamin (1704–76) ODNB
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' has 'led to a great expansion of the trade' of Sheffield, and notes the 'immense demand for railway-springs, buffers, and all descriptions of railway-iron, which has lately come upon Sheffield, and led to the establishment of a host of new iron-furnaces' (48).



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Issue [3] (15 December 1870)Expand    Contract

Section: Science and Philosophy

Academy,  2 (1870–71), 66–67.

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[Review of Observations on the Geology and Zoology of Abyssinia, by William T Blanford]

Alfred R Wallace Wallace, Alfred Russel (1823–1913) DSB
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Genre:

Review

Publications reviewed:

Blanford 1870 Blanford, William Thomas 1870. Observations on the Geology and Zoology of Abyssinia: Made During the Progress of the British Expedition to that Country in 1867–68, London: Macmillan & Co.
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Subjects:

Geology, Physical Geography, Exploration, Meteorology, Imperialism, Zoology, Ornithology


    Noting the enormous differences in the 'fresh-water and marine denudation' of geographically distant areas of the globe (66), Wallace contends that 'it is only by the study of the geology of the intertropical and glaciated regions combined, that we shall be able to obtain an adequate notion of the power of meteorological causes to mould, to furrow, and to destroy the surface of great continents'. He also suggests 'We may indeed expect, that the science of geological interpretation will be much advanced by the observations of the Indian surveyors Geological Survey of India
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, who have the great advantage of studying the denuding action of rain and rivers in a country where these agencies are so much more powerful than they are with us, and where they produce effects far beyond the power of the more placid meteorology of Europe'. (67)



Academy,  2 (1870–71), 69–70.

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The Gulf Stream—To the Editor of The Academy

Keith Johnston, Jun. Johnston, Alexander Keith, the younger (1844–79) ODNB
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Genre:

Letter

Subjects:

Oceanography, Hydrography, Error

People mentioned:

William B Carpenter Carpenter, William Benjamin (1813–85) DSB
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Subsection: Scientific Notes

Academy,  2 (1870–71), 70.

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Geology and Natural History

Anon

Genre:

Regular Feature, News-Digest



[1] South African Geology

Subjects:

Geology, Mineralogy, Mining, Imperialism


[2] New British Fossil Crustacea

Subjects:

Geology, Palaeontology


[3] Glacial Origin of the Valley of the Amazon

Subjects:

Geology, Glaciology

People mentioned:

Louis Agassiz Agassiz, Louis (Jean Louis Rodolphe) (1807–73) DSB
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[4] New Fossil Marsupial

Subjects:

Palaeontology, Controversy

People mentioned:

Richard Owen Owen, Richard (1804–92) DSB
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[5] Fossil Meteorite

Subjects:

Mineralogy, Palaeontology



Academy,  2 (1870–71), 70–71.

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Physiology

Anon

Genre:

Regular Feature, News-Digest



[1] Structure of the Internal Ear

Subjects:

Physiology, Neurology, Sound


[2] The Pneumatic Forces Carrying on the Circulation of the Blood

Subjects:

Physiology


[3] The Migration of Cells

Subjects:

Physiology, Cell Biology


[4] Relation of Tactile Sensibility to the Mobility of Parts

Subjects:

Physiology, Neurology



Academy,  2 (1870–71), 71.

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Botany

Anon

Genre:

Regular Feature, News-Digest



[1] Structure and Affinities of the Passifloræ

Subjects:

Botany

People mentioned:

Maxwell T Masters Masters, Maxwell Tylden (1833–1907) ODNB
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Academy,  2 (1870–71), 71–72.

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Chemistry

Anon

Genre:

Regular Feature, News-Digest



[1] Synthesis of Indigo

Subjects:

Organic Chemistry


[2] The Aerolitic Shower at Hessle

Subjects:

Mineralogy, Organic Chemistry


[3] Isotrimorphism of Stannic and Titanic Oxides

Subjects:

Crystallography


[4] The Metallic Peroxides Prepared by Electrolysis

Subjects:

Chemistry, Metallurgy


[5] Metallic Vanadium

Subjects:

Chemistry, Metallurgy


[6] Henderson's Patent Steel Process

Subjects:

Chemistry, Metallurgy, Patents

People mentioned:

James Henderson Henderson, James (of New York) (fl. 1870) AC1/2/3ai/6f
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Academy,  2 (1870–71), 72.

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Physics

Anon

Genre:

Regular Feature, News-Digest



[1] Method of Determining the Co-Efficient of Reduction for Tangent-Galvanometers

Subjects:

Physics, Measurement


[2] The Nature of Vowel-Sounds

Subjects:

Sound, Physiology, Comparative Philology

People mentioned:

Hermann von Helmholtz, Helmholtz, Hermann von (1821–94) DSB
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Karl R Koenig Koenig, Karl Rudolph (1832–1901) DSB
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[3] Ebullition of Non-Miscible Liquids

Subjects:

Physics



Section: Classical and Modern Philology

Academy,  2 (1870–71), 81–82.

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[Review of Pronunciation, Vocalism, and Accentuation of Latin, by Wilhelm P Corssen]

H Nettleship Nettleship, Henry (1839–93) ODNB
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Genre:

Review

Publications reviewed:

Corssen 1868 Corssen, Wilhelm Paul 1868. Uber Aussprache, Vokalismus und Betonung der lateinischen Sprache, Leipzig: Teubner
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Subjects:

Physiology, Sound, Comparative Philology


    Notes that in Wilhem P Corssen's Corssen, Wilhelm Paul (1820–75) RLIN
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book 'the investigations of physical observers into the laws which govern the formation of vocal sounds, have been to a certain extent made use of', and he is 'chiefly indebted to Brücke's Brücke, Ernst Wilhelm von (1819–92) DSB
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Physiologie und Systematik der Sprachlehre Brücke, Ernst Wilhelm von 1856. Grundzüge der Physiologie und Systematik der Sprachlaute fur Linguisten und Taubstummenlehrer, Vienna: Gerold
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, Helmholtz's Helmholtz, Hermann von (1821–94) DSB
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Lehre von den Tonempfindungen Helmholtz, Hermann von 1863. Die Lehre von den Tonempfindungen als physiologische Grundlage für die Theorie der Musik, Braunschweig: Verlag von Friedrich Vieweg und Sohn
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, and Max Müller's Max Müller, Friedrich (1823–1900) ODNB
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second series of Lectures on the Science of Language Max Müller, Friedrich 1864. Lectures on the Science of Language: Delivered at the Royal Institution of Great Britain in February, March, April, & May 1863, 2nd Series, London: Longmans, Green
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', although in addition Corssen 'might, perhaps, have noticed the remarkable work of Mr. Melville Bell Bell, Alexander Melville (1819–1905) WBI
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on Visible Speech Bell, Alexander Melville 1867. Visible Speech: The Science of Universal Alphabetics; or, Self-Interpreting Physiological Letters, for the Writing of All Languages in One Alphabet, London: Simpkin, Marshall & Co.
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' which has done 'more than any work [...] towards laying the foundations of alphabetical science' (81).



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Issue [4] (15 January 1871)Expand    Contract

Section: Miscellaneous Notes

Academy,  2 (1870–71), 93.

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New Process of Photography

Anon

Genre:

News-Digest

Subjects:

Photography


Section: Physical Science

Academy,  2 (1870–71), 95–96.

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[Review of Scientific Results of a Journey in Brazil, by Charles F Hartt]

John Young Young, John (fl. 1871) AC1/2/4b/2
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Genre:

Review

Publications reviewed:

Hartt 1870 Hartt, Ch. Fred. 1870. Scientific Results of a Journey in Brazil by Louis Agassiz and His Travelling Companions: Geology and Physical Geography of Brazil, Boston: Fields, Osgood; London: Trübner & Co.
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Subjects:

Geology, Physical Geography, Glaciology, Discovery, Methodology, Exploration


    Points out differences in the geological practice of Europeans and North Americans like Charles F Hartt Hartt, Charles Frederick (1840–78) WBI
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. Also notes that 'Agassiz's Agassiz, Louis (Jean Louis Rodolphe) (1807–73) DSB
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position as regards the surface geology of Brazil is in fact the counterpart of that which he held many years ago as regards that of Scotland. There he was the first to recognize the true glacial character of the boulder clay, and to solve satisfactorily a problem so oppressive as to have disturbed the slumbers of a leading Scottish theologian and geologist', and even the subsequent correction of some of Agassiz's details 'does not affect his fame as the discoverer of the right method of investigation' (95). Concedes that the 'difficulties attending exploratory journeys in tropical regions explain and largely excuse the want of precision in many parts' of the book (96).



Academy,  2 (1870–71), 96–97.

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Schweinfurth's Journey in Central America

Keith Johnston, Jun. Johnston, Alexander Keith, the younger (1844–79) ODNB
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Genre:

News-Commentary

Subjects:

Exploration, Physical Geography, Ethnology, Race, Imperialism, Discovery


    Reports that with the explorations of Georg A Schweinfurth Schweinfurth, Georg August (1836–1925) CBD
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and Samuel W Baker Baker, Sir Samuel White (1821–93) ODNB
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, 'and if, above all, there shall be added to this the long pent-up store of African knowledge which Dr. Livingstone Livingstone, David (1813–73) ODNB
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now jealously guards, Inner Africa will no longer be counted among the unknown parts of the globe, and the time of great discoveries will be nearly at an end' (97).



Subsection: Scientific Notes

Academy,  2 (1870–71), 97–98.

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Natural History and Physiology

Anon

Genre:

Regular Feature, News-Digest



[1] The Wings of Bats

Subjects:

Morphology, Neurology


[2] Habits of the Fur-Seals

Subjects:

Animal Behaviour


[3] Mode of Life of the Sucking-Fish and Pilot-Fish

Subjects:

Animal Behaviour, Nutrition


[4] The Physiological Laws of Human Increase

Subjects:

Human Species, Population, Physiology, Natural Law, Sex, Race, Gender

People mentioned:

Nathan Allen Allen, Nathan (1813–88?) WBI
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[5] Geographical Distribution of Diseases

Subjects:

Disease, Statistics, Industry, Gender


[6] Structure of the Glands of the Stomach

Subjects:

Anatomy, Cell Biology


[7] Glycerine Extracts of Pepsin and Other Ferments

Subjects:

Physiological Chemistry

People mentioned:

Michael Foster Foster, Sir Michael (1836–1907) DSB ODNB
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Academy,  2 (1870–71), 98.

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Physics

Anon

Genre:

Regular Feature, News-Digest



[1] On the Tension of Saturated Vapours

Subjects:

Physics, Gas Chemistry

People mentioned:

Robert Boyle, Boyle, Hon Robert (1627–91) DSB ODNB
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Hermann Herwig Herwig, Hermann (1844–81) WBI
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[2] On the Discharge of Statical Electricity

Subjects:

Electricity, Experiment



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Issue [5] (1 February 1871)Expand    Contract

Section: General Literature

Academy,  2 (1870–71), 107–09.

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[Review of The Mutineers of the Bounty, by Diana, Lady Belcher]

Alfred R Wallace Wallace, Alfred Russel (1823–1913) DSB
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Genre:

Review

Publications reviewed:

Belcher 1870 Belcher, Lady 1870. The Mutineers of the Bounty and their Descendants in Pitcairn and Norfolk Islands, London: J. Murray
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Subjects:

Sociology, Experiment, Heredity, Breeding, Race, Christianity, Politics, Population


    After describing the main events of the famous mutiny of 1789, Wallace notes that 'it is to the subsequent careers of the mutineers and their descendants—the well-known Pitcairn Islanders—that we are most attracted', as it is 'so rarely that social problems can be subjected to anything like a critical experiment, owing to the impossibility of eliminating the disturbing influence of adjacent populations'. In the condition of complete isolation formerly enjoyed by the islanders 'Many curious problems were [...] in process of solution. The little community consisted almost entirely of half-breeds; would any signs of sterility appear, or could they permanently continue the race? They necessarily soon came to marry almost wholly with blood relations; would this cause disease or deterioration? In the mixed race would the characteristics of the white or of the brown progenitors ultimately prevail, and which special features of each would maintain themselves longest?'. However, these questions cannot be answered adequately now that many of the islanders have been removed to Norfolk Island, the home of 'a missionary college for Melanesian converts'. (108) Also examines the political situation of the islanders, and concludes that there are 'many problems in physical, social, and political science which increasing population will soon force upon them' (109).



Section: Art and Archæology

Subsection: Notes on Art and Archæology

Academy,  2 (1870–71), 112.

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[Statue of the Late Dr Whewell]

Anon

Genre:

Announcement, Notes

Subjects:

Scientific Practitioners, Universities


    Reports that 'The cast is now completed for the statue of the late Dr. Whewell Whewell, William (1794–1866) DSB
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, which Mr. Woolner Woolner, Thomas (1825–92) ODNB
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has in hand for the chapel of Trinity College, Cambridge Trinity College, Cambridge
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', and that the sculptor 'has been particularly happy in seizing the singular half-smile which used to add a grimness of his own to the massive features of his model' (112).



Section: Physical Science

Academy,  2 (1870–71), 117–18.

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The English and American Eclipse Expeditions

R B Clifton Clifton, Robert Bellamy (1836–1921) ODNB
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Genre:

Reportage

Subjects:

Astronomy, Observation, Spectroscopy

People mentioned:

Richard Abbay Abbay, Richard (1844–1924) WBI
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    Reports that as yet 'it is impossible to form any definite idea as to the additions to our knowledge of the constitution of the sun which may result from this expedition'. The 'sketches which have been made of the corona appear to differ greatly from one another even in the case of observers at the same place, a circumstance which seems to indicate that some of the details are subjective', although with the 'sketches having a general resemblance to one another [...] it is clear that some portion of the phenomenon is objective, though the differences between the sketches made by different parties seem to point to our atmosphere as being to some and indeed to a great extent instrumental in its production'. (117)



Academy,  2 (1870–71), 118–19.

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Father Secchi on the Eclipse

P A Secchi Secchi, Angelo (Pietro Angelo) (1818–78) DSB
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Genre:

Letter

Subjects:

Astronomy, Observation, Spectroscopy, Meteorology


Academy,  2 (1870–71), 119.

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[Variations in Terrestrial Magnetism During the Eclipse]

Anon

Genre:

Extract

Publications extracted:

Gazzetta Ufficiale del Regno d'Italia Gazzetta Ufficiale del Regno d'Italia (1861–1900+) COPAC
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Subjects:

Astronomy, Observation, Spectroscopy, Meteorology


Academy,  2 (1870–71), 119.

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[Results of the Italian Eclipse Expedition]

Anon

Genre:

Reportage

Subjects:

Astronomy, Observation, Spectroscopy, Meteorology


Subsection: Scientific Notes

Academy,  2 (1870–71), 119–20.

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Biology

Anon

Genre:

Regular Feature, News-Digest



[1] Migration of White Blood Corpuscles

Subjects:

Cell Biology


[2] Consciousness and the Seat of Sensation

Subjects:

Neurology


[3] The Theory of Natural Selection

Subjects:

Theory, Darwinism, Zoology, Human Species, Entomology

People mentioned:

Alfred W Bennett, Bennett, Alfred William (1833–1902) ODNB
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Charles R Darwin, Darwin, Charles Robert (1809–82) DSB
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Alfred R Wallace Wallace, Alfred Russel (1823–1913) DSB
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Academy,  2 (1870–71), 120.

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Botany

Anon

Genre:

Regular Feature, News-Digest



[1] Transpiration of Aqueous Vapour by Leaves

Subjects:

Botany, Chemistry


[2] Stipules of Magnolia

Subjects:

Botany


[3] The Colours of Autumnal Foliage

Subjects:

Botany, Chemistry

People mentioned:

Henry C Sorby Sorby, Henry Clifton (1826–1908) DSB
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Academy,  2 (1870–71), 120–21.

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Geology

Anon

Genre:

Regular Feature, News-Digest



[1] Eozoön Canadense

Subjects:

Geology, Palaeontology


[2] Diamonds at the Cape

Subjects:

Mineralogy, Mining, Commerce


[3] Thermal Springs in Cambridgeshire

Subjects:

Geology, Physical Geography, Agriculture


[4] Excavations in Portsmouth in the Lower Eocene Beds

Subjects:

Geology, Palaeontology


[5] Geological Bearings of Recent Deep-Sea Soundings

Subjects:

Geology, Oceanography

People mentioned:

Alexander H Green, Green, Alexander Henry (1832–96) ODNB
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Charles W Thomson, Thomson, Sir Charles Wyville (1830–82) DSB
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William B Carpenter Carpenter, William Benjamin (1813–85) DSB
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[6] Mammoth in Belgium

Subjects:

Palaeontology, Museums



Academy,  2 (1870–71), 121.

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Chemistry and Physics

Anon

Genre:

Regular Feature, News-Digest



[1] The Influence of Wind on Pressure

Subjects:

Metrology


[2] The Meteorite of Lodran

Subjects:

Mineralogy, Analytical Chemistry


[3] Decomposition of Oxalic Acid

Subjects:

Organic Chemistry


[4] Sugar a Normal Constituent of Wine

Subjects:

Organic Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry


[5] Development of Ozone by Electrolysis

Subjects:

Electrochemistry


[6] Synthesis of Conine

Subjects:

Chemistry



^^ Back to the top of this issue

Issue [6] (15 February 1871)Expand    Contract

Section: General Literature

Subsection: Literary Notes

Academy,  2 (1870–71), 128.

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[Literary and Scientific Losses During the Siege of Paris]

Anon

Genre:

Regular Feature, News-Digest

Subjects:

War, Scientific Practitioners, Museums, Observatories, Universities, Botanical Gardens, Zoological Gardens


Section: Physical Science

Academy,  2 (1870–71), 138–40.

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[Review of Contributions to the Theory of Natural Selection, by Alfred R Wallace]  [1/2]Felix A Dohrn, '[Review of Contributions to the Theory of Natural Selection, by Alfred R Wallace]', Academy, 2 (1870–71), 159–60

Close

Anton Dohrn Dohrn, Felix Anton (1840–1909) DSB
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Genre:

Review

Publications reviewed:

Wallace 1870 Wallace, Alfred Russel 1870. Contributions to the Theory of Natural Selection: A Series of Essays, London: Macmillan & Co.
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Subjects:

Darwinism, Theory, Exploration, Population, Descent, Natural Law, Biology, Ornithology, Amateurism, Creation, Human Species, Heredity, Instinct


    Suggests that the essays collected in Alfred R Wallace's Wallace, Alfred Russel (1823–1913) DSB
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book are 'interesting not only in their relation to the great theory, but also from the light which they throw on the gradual development of a remarkable man'. Although the researches on species of Wallace and Charles R Darwin Darwin, Charles Robert (1809–82) DSB
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'culminate in very divergent results—an example ready to hand of the Darwinian law of the divergence of character', it is 'also worth noting that both enquirers received their first impulse towards a successful solution of the problem from Malthus's Malthus, Thomas Robert (1766–1834) DSB
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celebrated work On Population Malthus, Thomas Robert 1798. An Essay on the Principle of Population, as it Affects the Future Improvement of Society: With Remarks on the Speculations of Mr. Godwin, M. Condorcet, and Other Writers. London: J. Johnson
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'. Praises Wallace for having earlier taken 'a stand in the most definite manner on the basis of the theory of descent, which had been so completely stamped out since the time of Lamarck Lamarck, Jean Baptiste Pierre Antoine de Monet, chevalier de (1744–1829) DSB
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', and notes that it 'required considerable boldness to undertake a problem, regarded at the time by almost everyone as unscientific, beneath the tropical sun of the Sunda Islands'. (138) Insists that Wallace's essay on the tendency of varieties to depart indefinitely from the original Type and Darwin's On the Origin of Species Darwin, Charles Robert 1859. On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection; or, The Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life, London: John Murray
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'form together the one fountain-head from which the theory of natural selection has flowed, so we may recognise side by side with the mighty development of Darwin a perfectly independent position for Mr. Wallace' (138–39). Indeed, Wallace's work, particularly on instinct and birds, will 'open a new field of biology, as well for laymen as for trained enquirers'. Furthermore, Wallace in his book 'maintains with great emphasis that there are very important facts in Nature for whose explanation' the principle of natural selection 'does not suffice, and will never suffice'. (139)



Subsection: Scientific Notes

Academy,  2 (1870–71), 140.

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New Geographical Explorations

Anon

Genre:

News-Digest

Subjects:

Exploration, Imperialism, Geology

People mentioned:

Gustav Nachtigal Nachtigal, Gustav (1834–85) CBD
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Academy,  2 (1870–71), 140–41.

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Physiology, &c.

Anon

Genre:

Regular Feature, News-Digest



[1] Ciliary Movement

Subjects:

Physiology, Cell Biology

People mentioned:

Ernst H P A Haeckel Haeckel, Ernst Heinrich Philipp August (1834–1919) DSB
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[2] Physiological Effects of Exposure to Increased Atmospheric Pressure

Subjects:

Physiology, Engineers


[3] The Aëroconiscope

Subjects:

Bacteriology, Microbiology, Microscopy, Instruments


[4] The Power of Numerical Discrimination

Subjects:

Mathematics, Statistics, Psychology

People mentioned:

William S Jevons Jevons, William Stanley (1835–82) DSB
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Academy,  2 (1870–71), 141.

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Geology, &c.

Anon

Genre:

Regular Feature, News-Digest



[1] Fossil Birds, Reptiles, and Batrachia of America

Subjects:

Palaeontology


[2] Vertebrate Remains from the Newcastle Coal-Field

Subjects:

Palaeontology, Mining


[3] Tertiary Shells of the Amazon Valley

Subjects:

Exploration, Palaeontology, Geology


[4] Faunas of the Red Sea and Mediterranean

Subjects:

Oceanography, Geology


[5] New Form of Terebratulid

Subjects:

Natural History



Academy,  2 (1870–71), 141.

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Physics and Chemistry

Anon

Genre:

Regular Feature, News-Digest



[1] Influence of Intense Cold on Steel and Iron

Subjects:

Physics, Metallurgy, Railways, Accidents


[2] Henderson's Patent Process for Refining Cast Iron

Subjects:

Metallurgy, Invention, Industry, Patents

People mentioned:

James Henderson Henderson, James (of New York) (fl. 1870) AC1/2/3ai/6f
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[3] A New Deodorizing Material

Subjects:

Industrial Chemistry, Sanitation



Section: Philology

Academy,  2 (1870–71), 145–46.

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On the Pronunciation of c Before e, i, y, ae, eu, oe, in Latin

Max Müller Max Müller, Friedrich (1823–1900) ODNB
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Genre:

Notes

Subjects:

Physiology, Comparative Philology


^^ Back to the top of this issue

Issue [7] (1 March 1871)Expand    Contract

Section: Science and Philosophy

Academy,  2 (1870–71), 159–60.

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[Review of Contributions to the Theory of Natural Selection, by Alfred R Wallace]  [2/2]Felix A Dohrn, '[Review of Contributions to the Theory of Natural Selection, by Alfred R Wallace]', Academy, 2 (1870–71), 138–40

Close

Anton Dohrn Dohrn, Felix Anton (1840–1909) DSB
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Genre:

Review

Publications reviewed:

Wallace 1870 Wallace, Alfred Russel 1870. Contributions to the Theory of Natural Selection: A Series of Essays, London: Macmillan & Co.
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Subjects:

Human Species, Anthropology, Race, Controversy, Darwinism, Evolution, Progress, Neurology, Physiology, Error, Physiological Psychology

People mentioned:

J L René A E Claparède Claparède, J L René Antoine Edouard (1832–71) WBI
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    Notes how in addressing the controversial issue of the 'unity or plurality of the human species', a 'question [...] which is usually discussed rather in a dogmatic than a critical spirit, and with more passion than knowledge, Alfred R Wallace Wallace, Alfred Russel (1823–1913) DSB
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'succeeds in steering clear of these dangers', and 'concedes the point to those who recognise a single origin for mankind' while 'furnishing a line of argument' that will at the same time 'satisfy' the opponents of this position. Wallace's main argument is that the 'endless struggle for existence gradually ceases amongst the members' of human communities, retarding 'the progress towards greater perfection in mere bodily organization', but allowing 'progress' to pass 'over gradually from the physical to the intellectual; the body remains unchanged in outward form, whilst the mind, and those organs like the brain which are essentially concerned with its activity, alone develop'. Dismisses Wallace's contentions that 'the brain of the savage has always been found too large for its intellectual functions' and that this fact is 'explicable merely on the supposition that man had from the beginning a large quantity of brain in order to enjoy the later requirements of civilisation', because they 'fly in the face of plain physiological fact' regarding the relation between brain size and intellectual capacity. Indeed, 'elephants and whales have larger brain volume (and therefore on this theory ought to have superior capacities) than Cuvier Cuvier, Georges (1769–1832) DSB
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or Napoleon Napoleon I, Emperor of France (1769–1821) CBD
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'. (159) Concludes that 'we hold that none of the facts hitherto mentioned are sufficiently established to justify so important a step as the introduction of a new principle of explanation' to supplement that of natural selection (160).



Subsection: Scientific Notes

Academy,  2 (1870–71), 161.

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The Paris Balloons

Anon

Genre:

News-Digest

Subjects:

Transport, Aeronautics, Meteorology


Academy,  2 (1870–71), 161.

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Botany

Anon

Genre:

Regular Feature, News-Digest



[1] Parasitic Ear-Fungi

Subjects:

Microbiology, Parasitology


[2] Fertilisation of Fumariaceæ

Subjects:

Botany


[3] Bud Varieties

Subjects:

Botany, Horticulture, Darwinism

People mentioned:

Thomas Meehan Meehan, Thomas (1826–1901) WBI
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[4] [The Improvident Destruction of Forests]

Subjects:

Environmentalism, Climatology



Academy,  2 (1870–71), 161–62.

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Physics

Anon

Genre:

Regular Feature, News-Digest



[1] Is Electricity Produced by the Living Human Body?

Subjects:

Periodicals, Spiritualism, Electromagnetism, Electrochemistry, Physiology, Neurology

People mentioned:

Cromwell F Varley Varley, Cromwell Fleetwood (1828–83) ODNB
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Publications cited:

Spiritualist Spiritualist (1869–82) Psyche (1882) Waterloo Directory
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[2] On Some Phenomena Observed with the Water-Hammer

Subjects:

Spectroscopy, Instruments



Academy,  2 (1870–71), 162.

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Chemistry

Anon

Genre:

Regular Feature, News-Digest



[1] The Stewart County Meteorite

Subjects:

Mineralogy, Analytical Chemistry


[2] Amorphous Sulphur

Subjects:

Organic Chemistry


[3] A New Class of Alcohols

Subjects:

Chemistry


[4] On the Occurrence of Amorphous Mercury Sulphide in Nature

Subjects:

Chemistry, Geology


[5] [Dr. Wilhelm Kühne]

Subjects:

Scientific Practitioners, Physiology, Universities

People mentioned:

Wilhelm F Kühne, Kühne, Wilhelm Friedrich (1837–1900) DSB
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Hermann von Helmholtz Helmholtz, Hermann von (1821–94) DSB
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Institutions mentioned:

University of Heidelberg University of Heidelberg
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Issue [8] (15 March 1871)Expand    Contract

Section: Physical Science and Philosophy

Academy,  2 (1870–71), 177–83.

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[Review of The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex, by Charles R Darwin]

Alfred R Wallace Wallace, Alfred Russel (1823–1913) DSB
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Genre:

Review

Publications reviewed:

Darwin 1871a Darwin, Charles Robert 1871a. The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex, London: John Murray
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Subjects:

Reading, Popularization, Natural History, Sex, Genius, Human Species, Descent, Evolution, Darwinism, Morality, Utilitarianism, Gender, Language, Ornithology, Entomology, Instinct, Natural Law


    Observes that Charles R Darwin's Darwin, Charles Robert (1809–82) DSB
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latest book is 'one of the most remarkable works in the English language' (183) and 'will prove almost equally attractive to the naturalist and the general reader', being 'throughout written in the author's clearest style'. In addition, many of the non-specialist 'readers of this book', accustomed to 'the reticence with which the sexual relations of animals have been treated in popular works', will 'be astonished to find that a new and inner world of animal life exists, of which they had hitherto no conception', and this 'new branch of natural history is one of the most striking creations of Mr. Darwin's genius, and it is all his own'. Wallace provides a 'sketch in outline' of the book's main facts and arguments, before discussing 'certain points which seem open to criticism'. (177) Praises Darwin's views on the origin of the moral sense as an 'advance in the history of the utilitarian philosophy', although noting that on their logic 'intemperance and licentiousness are never counted as vices, because they do not immediately concern any one but the individual and his family' (178). Before beginning his criticism of Darwin's views, Wallace announces 'I am glad to have this opportunity of showing to what extent a study of his facts and arguments have modified my opinions' (180) as well as indicating where 'Mr. Darwin adopts the views of the present writer' (178). The Descent, according to Wallace, 'consists of two books mixed together' and a 'rearrangement could easily be effected in a future edition, and would have many advantages', while much of the writing is 'certainly not in accordance with our author's usual precision of language', although Darwin's imprecise use of the term 'Instinct' is 'no doubt mainly due to the poverty of our language' (180). Also questions Darwin's 'argument that the female exerts a choice, and has the power of rejecting any particular male', as 'this hardly seems to follow, for it may well be maintained that when the more active male seizes a female she cannot escape, and that she has no means of rejecting him and practically never does so' (179). Wallace's main criticisms relate to the efficacy of the principle of sexual selection in cases other than birds, as well as the evolution of the human species. Throughout all of the different orders of insects, for instance, 'there is no direct evidence whatever of sexual selection as regards colour', and instead Wallace attributes variations in insect colours to 'unknown laws'. From his researches on 'many islands of the Malay Archipelago' he suggests that there exists 'some local modifying influence which is certainly not sexual selection' but which is nevertheless 'capable of differentiating the sexes'. (182) Similarly, contends that 'the superiority of man to his nearest allies', and in particular 'the almost infinite capacities of his brain', are 'too great to be accounted for by the struggle for existence of an isolated group of apes in a limited area', and must rely on 'unknown causes which may have aided in the work' (183).


Reprinted:

Wallace 1871a Wallace, Alfred Russel 1871a. Mr. Wallace and Mr. Darwin: A Review and Criticism of Mr. Darwin's "Descent of Man", New York: August Brentano
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See also:

Desmond and Moore 1991 Desmond, Adrian and Moore, James 1991. Darwin, Michael Joseph
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, 581–82


Subsection: Scientific Notes

Academy,  2 (1870–71), 183.

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Philosophy

Anon

Genre:

Regular Feature, News-Digest



[1] The Nature and Origin of Moral Ideas

Subjects:

Morality, Philosophy

People mentioned:

Alexander Grant Grant, Sir Alexander, 10th Baronet 'of Dalvey' (1826–84) ODNB
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Academy,  2 (1870–71), 183–84.

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Physiology

Anon

Genre:

Regular Feature, News-Digest



[1] Aphasia

Subjects:

Mental Illness, Language, Physiological Psychology, Neurology

People mentioned:

Alexander Robertson Robertson, Dr Alexander (fl. 1871) AC1/2/8ai/3a
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Publications cited:

Darwin 1871a Darwin, Charles Robert 1871a. The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex, London: John Murray
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[2] The Nature of the Spleen

Subjects:

Physiology, Anatomy


[3] Lymph-Spaces of the Cornea

Subjects:

Physiology


[4] On the Excitation of Nerve and Muscle with Discontinuous Electric Currents

Subjects:

Neurology, Physiology, Electricity


[5] On Peristaltic Movements

Subjects:

Physiology



Academy,  2 (1870–71), 184.

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Physics and Chemistry

Anon

Genre:

Regular Feature, News-Digest



[1] On the Spectrum of the Aurora

Subjects:

Instruments, Instrument-makers, Astronomy, Spectroscopy

People mentioned:

Johann K F Zöllner Zöllner, Johann Karl Friedrich (1834–82) DSB
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[2] Composition of Iron-Rust

Subjects:

Metallurgy



^^ Back to the top of this issue

Issue [9] (1 April 1871)Expand    Contract

Section: Science and Philosophy

Academy,  2 (1870–71), 197–98.

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[Review of An Examination of the Utilitarian Philosophy, by John Grote]

Henry Sidgwick Sidgwick, Henry (1838–1900) ODNB
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Genre:

Review

Publications reviewed:

Grote 1870 Grote, John 1870. An Examination of the Utilitarian Philosophy, ed. by Joseph Bickersteth Mayor, Cambridge: Deighton, Bell; London: Bell and Daldy
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Subjects:

Utilitarianism, Philosophy, Morality

People mentioned:

John S Mill, Mill, John Stuart (1806–73) DSB
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Jeremy Bentham Bentham, Jeremy (1748–1832) ODNB
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Academy,  2 (1870–71), 198–99.

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[Review of The Intelligence and Perfectibility of Animals, by Charles G Leroy]

Alfred W Bennett Bennett, Alfred William (1833–1902) ODNB
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Genre:

Review

Publications reviewed:

Leroy 1870 Leroy, Charles George 1870. The Intelligence and Perfectibility of Animals From a Philosophic Point of View: With a Few Letters on Man, London: Chapman and Hall
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Subjects:

Naturalists, Animal Behaviour, Instinct, History of Science, Evolution, Heterodoxy, Religion, Natural History, Materialism, Darwinism, Heredity, Human Species

People mentioned:

Georges L Leclerc, comte de Buffon Buffon, Georges-Louis Leclerc, comte de (1707–88) DSB
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    Commends the publication of some little-known letters 'written in the second half of last century' (198), and suggests that 'in publishing an English edition of the work the translator has brought a useful contribution to the history of the development of scientific thought'. Based on his observations of the behaviour of animals at 'Versailles and Marly' (199), Charles G Leroy Leroy, Charles George (1723–89) WBI
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, who wrote 'partly under the pseudonym of "The Naturalist of Nuremberg"', proposed that the 'faculty which is ordinarily called instinct is in reality a form of intelligence or reasoning', and is thus capable of 'improvement and of perfectibility within certain limits' (198). However, to really 'appreciate the boldness and originality' of Leroy's views, 'it is necessary to throw oneself back into the state of the development of thought in his day' (198–99), for 'Just as now the evolutionist is told that the theory of a continuously acting creative power is opposed to the teaching of Scripture, so a century ago orthodoxy required of scientific men the belief that man was the only being possessed of even the least degree of mental power'. Rejecting the doctrines of 'the French materialists', Leroy instead 'anticipated views respecting the relationship between the mental faculties of man and those of the lower animals which have not been fully developed until our own day'. Indeed, his views were in advance of 'the prevalent idea among naturalists with regard to instinct [...] within the last thirty years', and bear an interesting relation to those of 'Mr. Darwin Darwin, Charles Robert (1809–82) DSB
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', who 'When he published his theory that instinct is nothing but the experience of former generations inherited and constantly improved' found that 'the idea was a novel one to the greater part of the educated public' even though Leroy had made similar arguments 'Nearly a century ago'. (199)



Academy,  2 (1870–71), 199.

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Professor De Morgan

H J S Smith Smith, Henry John Stephen (1826–83) DSB
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Genre:

Obituary

Subjects:

Scientific Practitioners, Mathematics, Truth, Methodology, Invention, Philosophy

People mentioned:

Augustus De Morgan De Morgan, Augustus (1806–71) DSB
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Publications cited:

De Morgan 1842 De Morgan, Augustus 1842. The Differential and Integral Calculus: Containing Differentiation, Integration, Development, Series, Differential Equations, Differences, Summation, Equations of Differences, Calculus of Variations, Definite Integrals,—with Applications to Algebra, Plane Geometry, Solid Geometry, and Mechanics. Also, Elementary Illustrations of the Differential and Integral Calculus, Library of Useful Knowledge, London: R. Baldwin
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Academy,  2 (1870–71), 199–200.

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The Kara Sea

Keith Johnston, Jun. Johnston, Alexander Keith, the younger (1844–79) ODNB
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Genre:

Reportage

Subjects:

Exploration, Hunting, Oceanography, Meteorology, Navigation, Physical Geography, Amateurism, Declinism


    Complains that, unlike the sailors of the Norwegian fleets, 'since the early part of this century when the Scoresbys [William (1760–1829) Scoresby, William, Sr. (1760–1829) ODNB
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and William (1789–1857) Scoresby, William, Jr. (1789–1857) ODNB
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] gained their fame in arctic exploration, it does not appear that any single observation tending to advance our scanty knowledge of the geography or meteorology of these northern regions has been placed on record by any British whaler' (200).



Subsection: Scientific Notes

Academy,  2 (1870–71), 200.

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Geology

Anon

Genre:

Regular Feature, News-Digest



[1] [New Contributions to the Darwinian Controversy]

Subjects:

Darwinism, Controversy, Evolution, Geology, Palaeontology, Creationism

People mentioned:

Moritz Wagner Wagner, Moritz (1813–87) WBI
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[2] Fossil Mammals From the Secondary Rocks

Subjects:

Societies, Palaeontology, Comparative Anatomy, Controversy

People mentioned:

Richard Owen Owen, Richard (1804–92) DSB
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Institutions mentioned:

Palæontographical Society Palæontographical Society
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[3] Ceratodus Forsteri

Subjects:

Natural History, Palaeontology, Comparative Anatomy



Academy,  2 (1870–71), 200–01.

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Chemistry

Anon

Genre:

Regular Feature, News-Digest



[1] The Breitenbach Meteorite

Subjects:

Mineralogy, Analytical Chemistry


[2] Solid Carbon Disulphide

Subjects:

Organic Chemistry


[3] New Blood Crystals

Subjects:

Analytical Chemistry, Spectroscopy


[4] Fluoride of Silver

Subjects:

Chemistry


[5] Guanidine

Subjects:

Chemistry



Academy,  2 (1870–71), 201.

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Miscellaneous

Anon

Genre:

Regular Feature, News-Digest



[1] Kingfishers

Subjects:

Natural History, Ornithology, Monographs

People mentioned:

Richard B Sharpe Sharpe, Richard Bowdler (1847–1909) ODNB
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Publications cited:

Sharpe 1868–71 Sharpe, Richard Bowdler 1868–71. A Monograph of the Alcedinidae or Family of Kingfishers, London: published by the author
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[2] Spanish Forests

Subjects:

Agriculture, Engineering, Engineers


[3] [New Periodicals]

Subjects:

Periodicals, Science Communication, Archaeology, Anthropology, Medical Treatment, Pathology

People mentioned:

Saloman Stricker Stricker, Saloman (1834–98) WBI
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Issue [10] (15 April 1871)Expand    Contract

Section: General Literature

Academy,  2 (1870–71), 213–15.

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[Review of Critical Miscellanies, by John Morley]

G A Simcox Simcox, George Augustus (b. 1841) WBI
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Genre:

Review

Publications reviewed:

Morley 1871 Morley, John 1871. Critical Miscellanies, London: Chapman and Hall
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Subjects:

Positivism, Progress, Scientism


    Suggests that although John Morley Morley, John, Viscount Morley of Blackburn (1838–1923) ODNB
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is 'a very independent adherent' of the tenets of Auguste Comte Comte, Isidore Auguste Marie François Xavier (Auguste) (1798–1857) DSB
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, the 'primary importance of these full and thoughtful essays is that they are applications of a doctrine which the majority of educated men regard, perhaps with better reason, with something of the angry contempt with which Marcus Aurelius regarded Christianity, and which in spite of their contempt is making progress which they ought to find alarming' (213). Also details Morley's views on 'the healing effects of science approached in the positive spirit' (215).



Academy,  2 (1870–71), 215–16.

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[Review of The Earthward Pilgrimage, by Moncure D Conway]

Henry Sidgwick Sidgwick, Henry (1838–1900) ODNB
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Genre:

Review

Publications reviewed:

Conway 1871 Conway, Moncure Daniel 1871. The Earthward Pilgrimage, London: John Camden Hotten
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Subjects:

Secularism, Christianity, Natural Law, Religion, Theodicy, Positivism


    Explains that Moncure D Conway Conway, Moncure Daniel (1832–1907) CBD
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believes that 'we may infer from the love and thought within us analogous facts throughout the universe; their relation however to the universe we cannot ascertain. However, the laws of the universe are great and good, and by sympathy with these we ourselves become good and strong'. In the 'new terrestrial Jerusalem [...] dimly sketched' by Conway there will be 'as few laws as possible, except laws of Nature', and Sidgwick notes that this 'democratic Eden is a curious contrast to Comte's Comte, Isidore Auguste Marie François Xavier (Auguste) (1798–1857) DSB
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ordered Utopia'. (216)



Subsection: Literary Notes

Academy,  2 (1870–71), 217.

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[English Publication of First Part of Hippolyte A Taine's De l'Intelligence]

Anon

Genre:

Regular Feature, News-Digest

Subjects:

War, Monographs, Physiological Psychology

Publications cited:

Taine 1871 Taine, Hippolyte Adolphe 1871. On Intelligence, trans. by Thomas D Haye and revised with additions by the author, London: L. Reeve & Co.
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Section: Art and Archæology

Academy,  2 (1870–71), 218–19.

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International Exhibition of 1871. (To Open on the 1st of May)

Anon

Genre:

Reportage

Subjects:

Exhibitions, Industry, Steam-power, Machinery, Engineering

Institutions mentioned:

London International Exhibition (1871) International Exhibition (1871), London
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Section: Science and Philosophy

Subsection: Scientific Notes

Academy,  2 (1870–71), 227.

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Miscellaneous

Anon

Genre:

Regular Feature, News-Digest



[1] [Morals and Moral Sentiments]

Subjects:

Morality, Utilitarianism, Philosophy

People mentioned:

Herbert Spencer Spencer, Herbert (1820–1903) DSB
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[2] [On the Physiology of Vocable Sounds]

Subjects:

Physiology, Sound



Academy,  2 (1870–71), 227.

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Geography

Anon

Genre:

Regular Feature, News-Digest



[1] [American Arctic Expedition]

Subjects:

Exploration, Oceanography

People mentioned:

Charles F Hall Hall, Charles Francis (1821–71) CBD
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[2] [A South African Journey]

Subjects:

Exploration, Navigation, Geology

People mentioned:

Eduard Mohr Mohr, Eduard (b. 1828) WBI
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[3] [Examination of the Mean Monthly and Annual Temperature of the British Isles]

Subjects:

Meteorology, Measurement, Agriculture, Oceanography



Academy,  2 (1870–71), 228.

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Geology

Anon

Genre:

Regular Feature, News-Digest



[1] Discovery of the Remains of a Glutton in England

Subjects:

Palaeontology, Natural History


[2] Shell Heaps in New Brunswick

Subjects:

Geology, Archaeology


[3] An American Bone-Cave

Subjects:

Palaeontology, Discovery



Academy,  2 (1870–71), 228.

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Zoology

Anon

Genre:

Regular Feature, News-Digest



[1] The Crustacea of the Gulf-Stream

Subjects:

Oceanography


[2] Geographical Distribution of the Ostrich

Subjects:

Zoology, Ornithology, Biogeography



Academy,  2 (1870–71), 228–29.

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Physiology

Anon

Genre:

Regular Feature, News-Digest



[1] The Supposed Fungoid Origin of Cholera

Subjects:

Disease, Microbiology, Microscopy, Bacteriology

People mentioned:

Timothy R Lewis Lewis, Timothy Richards (1841–86) ODNB
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[2] Structure and Function of the Mucous Glands of the Stomach

Subjects:

Anatomy, Cell Biology, Physiological Chemistry


[3] On the Movements of the Eyes

Subjects:

Physiology


[4] Nerve-Endings in the Tadpole's Tail

Subjects:

Neurology


[5] Odours and Their Action on the Health

Subjects:

Botany, Horticulture, Health


[6] The Transverse Striation of Muscle

Subjects:

Physiology, Error, Controversy

People mentioned:

C A Victor Hensen, Hensen, (Christian Andreas) Victor (1835–1924) DSB
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Ernst L Krause Krause, Ernst Ludwig (1839–1903) DSB
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[7] Preservation of the Contractile Gland Cells of the Skin of the Frog

Subjects:

Cell Biology, Neurology


[8] On the Reproduction of the Epithelium of the Cornea

Subjects:

Physiology, Cell Biology


See also:

Anon, '[5] Structure of the Muscle', Academy, 1 (1869–70), 155–56


Academy,  2 (1870–71), 229.

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Botany

Anon

Genre:

Regular Feature, News-Digest



[1] Fertilisation in Proteaceæ

Subjects:

Botany

People mentioned:

George Bentham Bentham, George (1800–84) DSB
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Academy,  2 (1870–71), 229–30.

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Chemistry and Physics

Anon

Genre:

Regular Feature, News-Digest



[1] On the Effects of Cold Upon the Strength of Iron

Subjects:

Metallurgy

People mentioned:

William Brockbank Brockbank, William (b. 1830) WBI
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[2] On Some Properties of Galvanically Deposited Iron

Subjects:

Metallurgy, Electricity


[3] On the Theory of Flame

Subjects:

Theory, Gas Chemistry


[4] On the Spheroidal Shape of Liquids

Subjects:

Physics


[5] On Cooling and Conduction of Heat in Gases

Subjects:

Heat, Natural Law, Gas Chemistry

People mentioned:

Isaac Newton Newton, Sir Isaac (1642–1727) DSB
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Section: Philology

Academy,  2 (1870–71), 230–32.

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The Pronunciation of Latin. IV  [4/6]Friedrich Max Müller, 'On the Pronunciation of Latin. VI', Academy, 2 (1870–71), 565–68

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Alexander J Ellis Ellis, Alexander John (1814–90) ODNB
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Genre:

Notes, Rejoinder, Serial

Subjects:

Anatomy, Physiology, Sound, Comparative Philology, Controversy

People mentioned:

Ernst W von Brücke, Brücke, Ernst Wilhelm von (1819–92) DSB
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Hermann von Helmholtz, Helmholtz, Hermann von (1821–94) DSB
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Friedrich Max Müller, Max Müller, Friedrich (1823–1900) ODNB
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Alexander M Bell Bell, Alexander Melville (1819–1905) WBI
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^^ Back to the top of this issue

Issue [11] (1 May 1871)Expand    Contract

Section: Science and Philosophy

Academy,  2 (1870–71), 243–46.

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[Review of The Dialogues of Plato, translated into English by Benjamin Jowett]

W H Thompson Thompson, William Hepworth (1810–86) ODNB
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Genre:

Review

Publications reviewed:

Plato 1871 Plato 1871. The Dialogues of Plato, trans. (with analyses and introductions) by B. Jowett, 4 vols, Oxford: Clarendon Press
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Subjects:

Ancient Authorities, Astronomy, Controversy, Mathematics


    Comments that 'it may not be amiss to call the attention of those whom it may concern to Mr. Jowett's Jowett, Benjamin (1817–93) ODNB
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remarks on a controversy which Sir George Lewis's Lewis, Sir George Cornewall, 2nd Baronet (1806–63) ODNB
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work on the Astronomy of the Ancients Lewis, George Cornewall 1862. An Historical Survey of the Astronomy of the Ancients, London: Parker, Son & Bourn
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' has 'brought under the notice of even non-Hellenizing astronomers' (245).



Subsection: Scientific Notes

Academy,  2 (1870–71), 246.

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Geography and Geology

Anon

Genre:

Regular Feature, News-Digest



[1] [A Voyage Up the Irawaddy to Mandalay and Bhamo]

Subjects:

Exploration, Ethnology


[2] [Dr. Carpenter on the Porcupine Expedition]

Subjects:

Oceanography

People mentioned:

William B Carpenter Carpenter, William Benjamin (1813–85) DSB
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Academy,  2 (1870–71), 246–47.

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Zoology

Anon

Genre:

Regular Feature, News-Digest



[1] New Corals

Subjects:

Invertebrate Zoology, Museums, Taxonomy

People mentioned:

William S Kent Kent, William Saville (fl. 1875–80) WBI
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[2] The Darwinian Theory

Subjects:

Darwinism, Theory, Palaeontology, Monographs

People mentioned:

Charles R Darwin, Darwin, Charles Robert (1809–82) DSB
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Moritz Wagner, Wagner, Moritz (1813–87) WBI
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Thomas R R Stebbing Stebbing, Thomas Roscoe Rede (1835–1926) WBI
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Publications cited:

Stebbing 1871 Stebbing, Thomas Roscoe Reid 1871. Essays on Darwinism, London: Longman
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[3] Ape Resemblances to Man

Subjects:

Comparative Anatomy, Human Species, Zoological Gardens, Palaeontology

People mentioned:

St George J Mivart, Mivart, St George Jackson (1827–1900) DSB
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Thomas H Huxley, Huxley, Thomas Henry (1825–95) DSB
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Charles R Darwin Darwin, Charles Robert (1809–82) DSB
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Academy,  2 (1870–71), 247–48.

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Chemistry, &c.

Anon

Genre:

Regular Feature, News-Digest



[1] On the Employment of Bromine in the Place of Chlorine in Analysis

Subjects:

Analytical Chemistry


[2] A New Alkaloid in Cinchona Bark

Subjects:

Pharmaceuticals


[3] Gun Cotton

Subjects:

Gas Chemistry, Heat


[4] Websterite

Subjects:

Geology, Mineralogy


[5] Synthesis of Substitute Guanidines

Subjects:

Chemistry


[6] A Substitute for Lime in the Lime-Light

Subjects:

Mineralogy, Light, Photography



Academy,  2 (1870–71), 248.

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Intelligence

Anon

Genre:

News-Digest

Subjects:

Scientific Practitioners, Societies, Patronage

People mentioned:

George B Airy, Airy, Sir George Biddell (1801–92) DSB ODNB
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William B Carpenter Carpenter, William Benjamin (1813–85) DSB
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Institutions mentioned:

Royal Society, Royal Society of London
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British Association for the Advancement of Science British Association for the Advancement of Science
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Section: History

Academy,  2 (1870–71), 248–50.

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[Review of Village Communities in the East and West, by Henry J S Maine]

T E Cliffe Leslie Leslie, Thomas Edward Cliffe (1827?–82) ODNB
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Genre:

Review

Publications reviewed:

Maine 1871 Maine, Henry Sumner 1871. Village Communities in the East and West: Six Lectures Delivered at Oxford, London: J. Murray
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Subjects:

Evolution, Progress, Sociology, Anthropology, Darwinism, Descent, Human Species


    Asserts that the 'movement of progressive society becomes one (to use Mr. Maine's Maine, Sir Henry James Sumner (1822–88) ODNB
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own formula) from status to contract; a formula, we may observe, for the legal side of the great movement which Herbert Spencer Spencer, Herbert (1820–1903) DSB
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formulates as a movement from the homogeneous to the heterogeneous. It is evident that this evolution of individuality from the patriarchal family is no more incompatible with Mr. McLennan's McLennan, John Ferguson (1827–81) ODNB
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theory that there are stages of savage existence anterior to the patriarchal family, than with Darwin's Darwin, Charles Robert (1809–82) DSB
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theory of the descent of man from an inferior race of animals' (248).



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Issue [12] (15 May 1871)Expand    Contract

Section: General Literature

Subsection: Literary Notes

Academy,  2 (1870–71), 260.

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[A Forgotten "Savant du xviiime siècle"]

Anon

Genre:

Regular Feature, News-Digest

Subjects:

Naturalists, Botany, History of Science

People mentioned:

Jean F Séguier Séguier, Jean François (1703–84) WBI
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Section: Physical Science

Academy,  2 (1870–71), 266–67.

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[Review of Natural History of the Azores or Western Islands, by Frederick D C Godman]

Alfred R Wallace Wallace, Alfred Russel (1823–1913) DSB
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Genre:

Review

Publications reviewed:

Godman 1870 Godman, Frederick Du Cane 1870. Natural History of the Azores or Western Islands, London: John Van Voorst
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Subjects:

Geology, Naturalists, Darwinism, Natural History, Zoology, Botany, Taxonomy, Mapping, Meteorology, Entomology, Biogeography, Evolution, Monographs, Publishing


    Explains that the peculiar position of the Azores in relation to Europe and America gives them 'especial interest for the naturalist since Mr. Darwin Darwin, Charles Robert (1809–82) DSB
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has shown how valuable is the evidence such islands afford for the derivative origin of species'. Indeed, what is 'most striking' about the Azores is 'the wonderful amount of similarity between the productions of these remote islands and those of Europe' and the enormous divergence of their animal and plant life from American species. Rather than supporting 'the theory of a former continental extension uniting these islands to Europe', the 'enormous preponderance of European species' can instead be explained by the fact that 'the Azores lie in a region of storms from all points of the compass; and that every year these storms bring numbers of birds from Europe, and no doubt also numbers of insects'. (266) The 'curious and difficult problem' posed by the existence of a 'considerable number of 'wingless beetles' on the islands which could not have been transported across the ocean is removed if we 'suppose that these wingless Atlantic groups are the descendants of very remote winged ancestors, who were among the earliest immigrants to all these islands; and these, being subjected to similar conditions, all became apterous' (266–67). Praises Frederick D C Godman Godman, Frederick du Cane (1834–1919) WBI
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for 'a book which should form a part of every naturalist's library', and commends the publisher for the 'useful innovation of issuing it with cut edges' (267).



Academy,  2 (1870–71), 267–68.

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[Review of History and Literature of Lichenology, by August von Krempelhuber]

M J Berkeley Berkeley, Miles Joseph (1803–89) DSB
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Genre:

Review

Publications reviewed:

Krempelhuber 1867 Krempelhuber, August von 1867–69. Geschichte und Litteratur der Lichenologie von den ältesten Zeiten bis zum Schlusse des Jahres 1865, 2 vols, Munich: Dr. C. Wolf & Sohn
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Subjects:

Publishing, Monographs, Wonder, Botany, Nationalism, Natural History, Specialization, Disciplinarity


    Expresses amazement at 'one of the most marvellous examples of German industry which has ever issued from the press', which addresses '1392 pages' to 'a subject which is of very limited interest even to botanists'. Also notes that in August von Krempelhuber's Krempelhuber, August von (1813–82) RLIN
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massive tome 'what is not always the case with continental writers, English sources [...] have been carefully explored and registered' (267), although it is 'curious that the one which has met with the least justice is that which is due to the author of this notice' (267n.). Protests that 'Excessive subdivision is one of the greatest evils which can befall any branch of natural history, and indisposes many to the study who might otherwise be useful labourers, especially as it has a tendency to draw off attention from those general views which are after all of main importance' (267).



Subsection: Scientific Notes

Academy,  2 (1870–71), 268.

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Physiology, &c.

Anon

Genre:

Regular Feature, News-Digest



[1] Researches Upon Nervous Irritation Induced by Electricity

Subjects:

Physiology, Neurology, Electricity


[2] Relation of Bacteria to Penicillium Glaucum

Subjects:

Bacteriology, Microbiology


[3] Sensory Epithelium of Molluscs

Subjects:

Invertebrate Zoology, Cell Biology, Neurology


[4] The Physiology of Mind in Lower Animals

Subjects:

Psychology, Zoology, Instinct, Descent, Evolution

People mentioned:

William L Lindsay Lindsay, William Lauder (1829–80) ODNB
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[5] Linear Projection in its Application to Microscopic Drawings

Subjects:

Microscopy, Instruments, Illustration, Observation, Measurement



Academy,  2 (1870–71), 268–69.

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Zoology

Anon

Genre:

Regular Feature, News-Digest



[1] Reproductive Capsules

Subjects:

Invertebrate Zoology, Sex, Discovery

People mentioned:

John Hopkinson Hopkinson, John (1844–1919) WBI
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[2] The Zoological Collection of the British Museum

Subjects:

Museums, Architecture, Display, Invertebrate Zoology

Institutions mentioned:

British Museum British Museum
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[3] Stone Implements in Cuba

Subjects:

Archaeology, Palaeontology, Human Species, Controversy


[4] Pangenesis

Subjects:

Breeding, Experiment, Genetics, Heredity, Darwinism, Theory, Error

People mentioned:

Francis Galton, Galton, Sir Francis (1822–1911) DSB ODNB
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Charles R Darwin Darwin, Charles Robert (1809–82) DSB
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Publications cited:

Darwin 1868 Darwin, Charles Robert 1868. The Variation of Animals and Plants Under Domestication, 2 vols, London: J. Murray
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Academy,  2 (1870–71), 269–70.

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Physics

Anon

Genre:

Regular Feature, News-Digest



[1] On the Condensation of Aqueous Vapour From the Atmosphere

Subjects:

Physics, Heat, Glaciology, Climatology, Palaeontology, Geology



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Issue [13] (1 June 1871)Expand    Contract

Section: Physical Science

Academy,  2 (1870–71), 286–87.

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[Review of New Problems of Comparative Geography, by Oscar F Peschel]

Keith Johnston, Jun. Johnston, Alexander Keith, the younger (1844–79) ODNB
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Genre:

Review

Publications reviewed:

Peschel 1870 Peschel, Oscar 1870. Neue Probleme der vergleichenden Erdkunde als versuch einer Morphologie de Erdoberflache, Leipzig: Duncker & Humblot
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Subjects:

Comparative Anatomy, Comparative Philology, Physical Geography, Nomenclature, Natural Theology, Climatology, Glaciology, Geology, Vulcanology, Chemistry, Exploration

People mentioned:

Karl Ritter, Ritter, Karl (1779–1859) WBI
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James D Dana Dana, James Dwight (1813–95) DSB
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Publications cited:

Ritter 1822–59 Ritter, Carl 1822–59. Die Erdkunde im Verhaltniss zur Natur und zur Geschichte des Menschen: oder allgemeine vergleichende Geographie, als sichere Grundlage des Studiums und Unterrichts in physikalischen und historischen Wissenschaften, 21 vols, Berlin: G. Reimer
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    Suggests that 'just as comparison in anatomy leads the way to arguments on the origin of species, as philology aids in proving the unity of the great branches of the human family', so the researches of Oskar F Peschel Peschel, Oskar Ferdinand (1826–75) WBI
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seek 'to show how the form of each particular portion of the outer world, each landscape, bears in itself a record of the contests and changes which it has suffered, and how, from a survey of the distribution of resembling forms, some light may be thrown upon the causes by which these have been originated' (286). Reports that, as Carl G C Bischof Bischof, Carl Gustav Christoph (1792–1870) DSB
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has demonstrated, 'Chemistry reveals a more probable cause' than 'the force of earthquakes or volcanic power' for the production of 'a power adequate to produce the phenomena of mountain elevation for which comparative geography seeks to find an explanation' (286–87). Contends that in the past 'Speculation on the causes of the varied features of the landscape, drawn from the study of one region or of one continent alone, could at best have been guesses at truth', and that now the 'comparative method' in geography is 'progressively increasing in value [...] as the exploration of the globe proceeds year by year' (287).



Subsection: Scientific Notes

Academy,  2 (1870–71), 287–88.

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Geography and Geology

Anon

Genre:

Regular Feature, News-Digest



[1] Spitzbergen and East Greenland

Subjects:

Exploration, Mapping, Physical Geography, Natural History


[2] Discovery of Actual Glaciers on the Mountains of Northern California

Subjects:

Physical Geography, Geology, Glaciology


[3] On the Organization of Trilobites

Subjects:

Palaeontology, Morphology

People mentioned:

Elkanah Billings Billings, Elkanah (1820–76) DSB
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[4] Recent Important Additions to the Geological Department of the British Museum

Subjects:

Palaeontology, Museums, Collecting

People mentioned:

Jacob G S van Breda, Breda, Jacob Gijsbert Samuel van (1788–1867) WBI
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Peter Camper Camper, Peter (Petrus) (1722–89) DSB
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Institutions mentioned:

British Museum British Museum
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[5] The Pliocene Mammalia of the Thames Valley

Subjects:

Palaeontology, Comparative Anatomy, Collecting, Amateurism, Museums

People mentioned:

Antonio Brady Brady, Sir Antonio (1811–81) ODNB
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Academy,  2 (1870–71), 288–89.

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Anthropology, Zoology, and Botany

Anon

Genre:

Regular Feature, News-Digest



[1] New Skull Measurements

Subjects:

Ethnology, Comparative Anatomy, Measurement

People mentioned:

Paolo Mantegazza Mantegazza, Paolo (1831–1910) DSB
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[2] Freshwater Bathybius

Subjects:

Invertebrate Zoology

People mentioned:

Thomas H Huxley Huxley, Thomas Henry (1825–95) DSB
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[3] German Darwinian Literature

Subjects:

Darwinism, Animal Development, Taxonomy

People mentioned:

Charles R Darwin, Darwin, Charles Robert (1809–82) DSB
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Julius V Carus Carus, Julius Victor (1823–1903) DSB
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Publications cited:

Darwin 1871b Darwin, Charles Robert 1871b. Die Abstammung des Menschen und die geschlechtliche Zuchtwahl, trans. by Julius V Carus, 2 vols, Stuttgart: E. Schweizerbart'sche Verlagshandlung
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[4] Graft-Hybridization

Subjects:

Botany, Horticulture



Academy,  2 (1870–71), 289.

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Chemistry

Anon

Genre:

Regular Feature, News-Digest



[1] The Hydrocarbons of the Marsh Gas Series

Subjects:

Gas Chemistry


[2] The Franklin Meteorite

Subjects:

Mineralogy, Analytical Chemistry


[3] The Action of Cyanogen on Alcoholic Hydrogen Chloride

Subjects:

Organic Chemistry


[4] Water from the Coal Measures of Westville, Nova Scotia

Subjects:

Chemistry


[5] Thallium

Subjects:

Metallurgy


[6] Nitroglycerine

Subjects:

Chemistry, Experiment

People mentioned:

Eugen F F von Gorup-Besanez Gorup-Besanez, Eugen Franz Frhr. von (1817–78) WBI
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Section: History

Academy,  2 (1870–71), 291–92.

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[Review of The Primeval Monuments of Peru Compared with Those in Other Parts of the World, by Ephraim G Squier]

G Maspero Maspero, Sir Gaston (1846–1916) CBD
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Genre:

Review

Publications reviewed:

Squier [1870] Squier, Ephraim George [1870]. The Primeval Monuments of Peru Compared with Those in Other Parts of the World, [Salem: Essex Institute Press]
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Subjects:

Discovery, Archaeology, Anthropology


    Asserts that 'All sciences of recent foundation, such as American archæology is, have always some surprise in store for the man who will try them cautiously and conscientiously'. Although they might at first seem 'dry and unfruitful [...] after a while they disclose suddenly unknown treasures, and reward their students with unexpected discoveries'. (291)



Section: Philology

Academy,  2 (1870–71), 294–96.

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[Review of On Early English Pronunciation, by Alexander J Ellis]

H Sweet Sweet, Henry (1845–1912) ODNB
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Genre:

Review

Publications reviewed:

Ellis 1869 Ellis, Alexander John 1869. On Early English Pronunciation: With Especial Reference to Shakspere and Chaucer, Containing an Investigation of Writing with Speech in England from the Anglosaxon Period to the Present Day, 2 parts, Early English Text Society Series, London: Asher & Co. and Trubner
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Subjects:

Comparative Philology, Physiology, Sound


    Describes the 'Two methods of remedying the evil' of the want of a 'definite system of notation' for 'speech-sounds', 'which we may distinguish as the traditional and the physiological' (294). Commends the use of 'a physiological alphabet such as the "Visible Speech" Bell, Alexander Melville 1867. Visible Speech: The Science of Universal Alphabetics; or, Self-Interpreting Physiological Letters, for the Writing of All Languages in One Alphabet, London: Simpkin, Marshall & Co.
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of Mr. Bell Bell, Alexander Melville (1819–1905) WBI
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', in which 'the traditional letters are entirely rejected, and a regular system of symbolizing the physiological formation of each sound is employed; the reader only has to follow the directions given by the shape of the letter itself, and he will accurately reproduce the sound, even if it be one he has never heard before' (294–95). Concludes that 'We have little doubt that the real alphabet of the future is Mr. Bell's "Visible Speech"', and even 'the want of means for printing it' is 'a difficulty which is a temporary one, and could soon be remedied' (296).



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Issue [14] (15 June 1871)Expand    Contract

Section: Physical Science

Academy,  2 (1870–71), 314–16.

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[Review of The People of India, edited by John F Watson and John W Kaye]

A Bastian Bastian, Adolf (1826–1905) CBD
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Genre:

Review

Publications reviewed:

Watson and Kaye eds. 1868–69 Watson, John Forbes and Kaye, John William, eds. 1868–69. The People of India: A Series of Photographic Illustrations, with Descriptive Letterpress, of the Races and Tribes of Hindustan, 5 vols, London: India Museum
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Subjects:

Ethnology, Induction, Chemistry, Alchemy, History of Science, Analogy, Race, Human Species, Taxonomy, Natural Law, Botany, Physiology, Societies, Photography, Anthropology, Measurement, Comparative Philology, Religion, Population, Imperialism

People mentioned:

Robert Boyle Boyle, Hon Robert (1627–91) DSB ODNB
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Publications cited:

Boyle 1661 Boyle, Robert 1661. The Sceptical Chymist; or, Chymico-Physical Doubts & Paradoxes, Touching the Spagyrist's Principles Commonly Call'd Hypostatical, as They are Wont to be Propos'd and Defended by the Generality of Alchymists: Whereunto is Praemis'd Part of Another Discourse Relating to the Same Subject, London: J. Crooke
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    Claims that ethnology is 'at present in that critical stage of transition through which all the inductive sciences, some earlier, some later, have passed in modern times', and suggests that its current position is 'analogous' to that of chemistry in the early seventeenth century. The 'indispensable necessity of all sciences' is not classification, but 'observation of, and insight into, law'. At present, however, 'Ethnology still awaits its Jussieu Jussieu, Antoine-Laurent de (1748–1836) DSB
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to replace its artificial classifications by a natural one', although just as 'systematic botany gave place to vegetable physiology, so, in like manner, ethnology will have to look upon its classification of race—with which the school-books hitherto have been almost exclusively occupied—as merely a preliminary step towards a physiology of mankind, and to a science of the laws which govern its spiritual growth'. The people of India present 'a problem of extreme difficulty' in 'the helpless condition of modern ethnology—deprived of its old principles before being able to create new ones', but at least 'the Ethnological Ethnological Society of London
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and Anthropological Anthropological Society of London
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Societies of London (for to them the credit belongs)' have drawn attention to 'the inexhaustible storehouse for ethnological research' that exists in the subcontinent. (314) Notes that 'the claims of anthropology pure and simple, which require the body to be undraped, have been sacrificed in these photographs to ethnological considerations which require the dress to be represented', and suggests that when there are two photographs 'one full-face, and one in exact profile [....] it is even possible to take measurements from them, and when opportunity is afforded for the employment of Lambert's method of measurement, or Huxley's Huxley, Thomas Henry (1825–95) DSB
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more simple mode, it should never be lost' (315).



Subsection: Scientific Notes

Academy,  2 (1870–71), 316.

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Physiology and Botany

Anon

Genre:

Regular Feature, News-Digest



[1] Influence of Temperature on the Muscular Electric Current

Subjects:

Physiology, Neurology, Electricity


[2] Prototaxites Logani

Subjects:

Palaeontology, Botany, Microscopy, Controversy

People mentioned:

John W Dawson, Dawson, Sir John William (1820–99) DSB ODNB
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William Carruthers Carruthers, William (1830–1922) WBI
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Academy,  2 (1870–71), 316–17.

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Geology

Anon

Genre:

Regular Feature, News-Digest



[1] Crinoids

Subjects:

Oceanography, Invertebrate Zoology, Palaeontology


[2] Scales of Lepidoptera

Subjects:

Entomology, Microscopy


[3] Post-Pliocene Mammalia

Subjects:

Palaeontology


[4] Fossil Sponges

Subjects:

Palaeontology, Invertebrate Zoology



Academy,  2 (1870–71), 317.

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Physics

Anon

Genre:

Regular Feature, News-Digest



[1] On Some Forms of the Galvanic Battery

Subjects:

Electrochemistry


[2] On Fixing the Magnetic Spectra

Subjects:

Magnetism, Photography


[3] On the Connection Between Optical and Chemical Absorption of Light

Subjects:

Physics, Light, Chemistry



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Issue [15] (1 July 1871)Expand    Contract

Section: General Literature

Academy,  2 (1870–71), 325–26.

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[Review of Essays Theological and Literary, by Richard H Hutton]

H Sidgwick Sidgwick, Henry (1838–1900) ODNB
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Genre:

Review

Publications reviewed:

Hutton 1871 Hutton, Richard Holt 1871. Essays, Theological and Literary, 2 vols, London: Strahan & Co.
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Subjects:

Unbelief, Darwinism, Creation, Christianity, Psychology


Section: Theology

Academy,  2 (1870–71), 334–35.

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[Review of History of the Doctrine of Justification and the Atonement, by Albrecht Ritschl]

H J Holtzmann Holtzmann, Heinrich Julius (1832–1910) WBI
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Genre:

Review

Publications reviewed:

Ritschl 1870 Ritschl, Albrecht 1870. Die christliche Lehre von der Rechtfertigung und Versöhnung, Part 1, Bonn: Marcus
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Subjects:

Philosophy, Methodology

People mentioned:

Immanuel Kant Kant, Immanuel (1724–1804) DSB
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    Observes that the 'main Kantian principles have in Germany become the tacit assumptions of all classes of scientific inquirers, whereas in England they have not yet worked their way to anything like general recognition' (335).



Section: Philosophy and Science

Academy,  2 (1870–71), 336–37.

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[Review of Notes of a Naturalist in the Nile Valley and Malta, by Andrew L Adams]

Alfred R Wallace Wallace, Alfred Russel (1823–1913) DSB
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Genre:

Review

Publications reviewed:

Adams 1870 Adams, Andrew Leith 1870. Notes of a Naturalist in the Nile Valley and Malta: A Narrative of Exploration and Research in Connection with the Natural History, Geology, and Archaeology of the Lower Nile and Maltese Islands, Edinburgh: Edmonston and Douglas
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Subjects:

Naturalists, Publishing, Monographs, Archaeology, Reading, Natural History, Geology, Palaeontology, Wonder, Zoology, Extinction

People mentioned:

George Busk, Busk, George (1807–86) DSB
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Hugh Falconer Falconer, Hugh (1808–65) DSB
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    Expresses disappointment that the 'valuable materials' of 'so enthusiastic a naturalist' as Andrew L Adams Adams, Andrew Leith (1827–82) ODNB
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are 'presented to us in a form so much like that in which they must have existed in his original note-books', and suggests that the resulting volume 'will not prove very attractive to the general reader' (336–37). Commends the 'full account of the caverns and superficial deposits which yielded to Captain Spratt Spratt, Thomas Abel Brimage (1811–88) ODNB
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and the author those wonderful relics of a by-gone age—the pigmy elephants, the hippopotamus, the great extinct swan and fresh-water turtle, and the great dormouse'. This 'assemblage of animals points unmistakably to the connection of what is now Malta with Africa', and the remains of 'undoubtedly adult' elephants that 'would have stood about 7 feet high' offer 'a very striking exception to the rule of extinct being larger than existing species'. (337)



Academy,  2 (1870–71), 337.

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[Review of Journeys in North China, Manchuria, and Eastern Mongolia, by Alexander Williamson]

A R Wallace Wallace, Alfred Russel (1823–1913) DSB
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Genre:

Review

Publications reviewed:

Williamson 1870 Williamson, Alexander 1870. Journeys in North China, Manchuria, and Eastern Mongolia: With Some Account of Corea, 2 vols, London: Smith, Elder & Co.
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Subjects:

Imperialism, Christianity, Science Communication, Progress, Mathematics, Monographs, Publishing, Technology, Vaccination

People mentioned:

Euclid Euclid (fl. 295 BC) DSB
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    Notes that 'readers will be astonished to learn what excellent work the English and American Protestant missionaries have done in making the Chinese acquainted with modern science [...] translating such works as Euclid, Newton's Newton, Sir Isaac (1642–1727) DSB
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Principia Newton, Isaac 1687. Philosophiae naturalis principia mathematica, Londini: Jussu Societatis Regiae ac Typis Josephi Streater
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, Loones' Loomis, Elias (1811–99) DSB
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[sic] Analytical Geometry and Differential and Integral Calculus Loomis, Elias 1851. Elements of Analytical Geometry and Differential and Integral Calculus, New York: Harper & Brothers
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, Herschel's Herschel, Sir John Frederick William (1792–1871) DSB ODNB
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Astronomy Herschel, John Frederick William 1849. Outlines of Astronomy, London: Longmans
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, Whewell's Whewell, William (1794–1866) DSB
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Mechanics Whewell, William 1819. An Elementary Treatise on Mechanics, Cambridge: J. Deighton
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[...] and others on almost every branch of modern science and European knowledge. And these works are so appreciated, and are in such demand, that the greater portion of them have been reprinted by Chinese of rank and position. Fire-engines, life-boats, and vaccination have also been adopted in China; and the government have employed translators of works on engineering, metallurgy, chemistry, electricity, and all the arts connected with the manufacture of warlike implements' (337).



Subsection: Scientific Notes

Academy,  2 (1870–71), 337–38.

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Physiology

Anon

Genre:

Regular Feature, News-Digest



[1] Velocity of Light

Subjects:

Light, Spectroscopy, Physics, Measurement

People mentioned:

Johann Müller Müller, Johann (Heinrich Jacob) (1809–75) DSB
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Academy,  2 (1870–71), 338.

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Botany

Anon

Genre:

Regular Feature, News-Digest



[1] The Geographical Distribution of Sea-Grasses

Subjects:

Botany, Oceanography, Ecology, Biogeography

People mentioned:

Paul Ascherson Ascherson, Paul (b. 1834) WBI
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Academy,  2 (1870–71), 338.

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Chemistry

Anon

Genre:

Regular Feature, News-Digest



[1] Occurrence of Diamond in Xanthophyllite

Subjects:

Mineralogy, Crystallography


[2] Conversion of Choral into Aldehyde

Subjects:

Chemistry


[3] Indigotine

Subjects:

Organic Chemistry


[4] Artificial Production of Crystals of Titanic Acid

Subjects:

Chemistry, Crystallography


[5] The Acid of the Gastric Juice

Subjects:

Physiological Chemistry


[6] Alloy of Lead with Platinum

Subjects:

Chemistry


[7] Chemical Nomenclature

Subjects:

Chemistry, Nomenclature

People mentioned:

Quirico Filopanti Filopanti, Quirico (formerly Giuseppe Barilli) (1812–94) WBI
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Issue [16] (15 July 1871)Expand    Contract

Section: Philosophy and Science

Subsection: Scientific Notes

Academy,  2 (1870–71), 356–57.

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Physiology

Anon

Genre:

Regular Feature, News-Digest



[1] Nerves of the Blood-Vessels

Subjects:

Neurology, Physiology


[2] Nerves of the Wings of Bats

Subjects:

Neurology, Physiology, Zoology



Academy,  2 (1870–71), 357.

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Zoology

Anon

Genre:

Regular Feature, News-Digest



[1] Affinities of the Sponges

Subjects:

Invertebrate Zoology, Taxonomy

People mentioned:

Ernst H P A Haeckel, Haeckel, Ernst Heinrich Philipp August (1834–1919) DSB
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William S Kent Kent, William Saville (fl. 1875–80) WBI
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[2] Appendiculariæ

Subjects:

Invertebrate Zoology, Oceanography

People mentioned:

William S Kent Kent, William Saville (fl. 1875–80) WBI
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[3] Australian Vertebrates

Subjects:

Zoology, Natural History

People mentioned:

Gerard Krefft Krefft, Gerard (1830–81) RLIN
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Institutions mentioned:

Australian Museum, Sydney Australian Museum, Sydney
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[4] Development of the Gregarinæ

Subjects:

Invertebrate Zoology, Animal Development

People mentioned:

Edouard van Beneden Beneden, Edouard van (1846-1910) DSB
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Academy,  2 (1870–71), 357–58.

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Geology

Anon

Genre:

Regular Feature, News-Digest



[1] On the Stratigraphical Distribution of the British Fossil Lamellibranchiata

Subjects:

Palaeontology, Geology, Stratigraphy, Invertebrate Zoology, Statistics

People mentioned:

James L Lobley, Lobley, James Logan (d. 1888) WBI
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Joachim Barrande Barrande, Joachim (1799–1883) DSB
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[2] The Men of the Stone Age

Subjects:

Palaeontology, Human Species, Archaeology

People mentioned:

William Pengelly Pengelly, William (1812–94) ODNB
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[3] A Coral of the Chalk Sea Found Living at the Present Day in the Deep Sea

Subjects:

Oceanography, Invertebrate Zoology, Palaeontology, Geology

People mentioned:

Edward Forbes Forbes, Edward, Jr (1815–54) DSB
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[4] British Bears and Wolves

Subjects:

Zoology, Palaeontology, Taxonomy, Extinction

People mentioned:

William B Dawkins Dawkins, Sir William Boyd (1837–1929) ODNB
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[5] On Some Supposed Vegetable Fossils

Subjects:

Geology, Palaeontology, Botany, Error

People mentioned:

William Carruthers Carruthers, William (1830–1922) WBI
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Academy,  2 (1870–71), 358–59.

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Chemistry

Anon

Genre:

Regular Feature, News-Digest



[1] Carnine, a New Base in Extractum Carnis

Subjects:

Physiological Chemistry


[2] Freieslebenite and Diaphorite

Subjects:

Mineralogy, Crystallography

People mentioned:

Viktor L von Zepharovich Zepharovich, Viktor Leopold von (1830–90) WBI
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[3] Preparation of Indium

Subjects:

Metallurgy, Industrial Chemistry


[4] A Remarkable Well

Subjects:

Physical Geography, Gas Chemistry


[5] A New Class of Colouring Matters

Subjects:

Industrial Chemistry


[6] Action of Chloride of Phosphorus on Benzoylparasulphotoluolamide

Subjects:

Organic Chemistry



Academy,  2 (1870–71), 359.

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Miscellaneous

Anon

Genre:

Regular Feature, News-Digest



[1] [Death of Mr. A. Keith Johnston, Sen.]

Subjects:

Scientific Practitioners, Physical Geography

People mentioned:

A Keith Johnston Johnston, Alexander Keith, the elder (1804–71) ODNB
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^^ Back to the top of this issue

Issue [17] (1 August 1871)Expand    Contract

Section: General Literature

Academy,  2 (1870–71), 368–70.

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[Review of Select English Works of John Wyclif, edited by Thomas Arnold]

Walter W Skeat Skeat, Walter William (1835–1912) ODNB
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Genre:

Review

Publications reviewed:

Wyclif 1869–71 Wycliffe, John 1869. Select English Works of John Wyclif, ed. from original mss. by Thomas Arnold, Oxford: Clarendon Press
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Subjects:

Narcotics, Temperance, Medical Practitioners, Health, History of Science, Light, Christianity, Astronomy, Heterodoxy


    Notes that from these medieval poems 'we obtain the curious notion that it was an opinion seriously entertained by the physicians of the days of Edward III. Edward III, King of England and Lord of Ireland and Duke of Aquitaine (1312–77) ODNB
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that it was expedient for a man's general health that he should take care to get drunk once a month, because much good comes thereof'. Also observes that in one poem 'we have a lesson in science, proving that the duration of the impression of an image upon the retina for an appreciable time was perfectly understood' by the people of the Middle Ages. Indeed, it was understood that 'a spark of fire, turned about in a dark night, seems to make a circle' because 'men's sight holds the print (holdes prent) of a thing before-seen for a little short while', and from this it was argued 'that God's sight may well retain images still longer'. Adds that 'This is really an anticipation of the very remarkable argument so ably worked out in a curious anonymous publication, entitled The Stars and the Earth [Eberty, Felix] 1853. The Stars and the Earth; or, Thoughts Upon Space, Time and Eternity, 5th edn, London: H. Bailliere
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, which appeared in 1854'. (369)



Section: Art and Archæology

Academy,  2 (1870–71), 372.

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New Buildings at South Kensington  [1/2]Basil Champneys, 'New Buildings at South Kensington', Academy, 2 (1870–71), 395–96

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Basil Champneys Champneys, Basil (1842–1935) ODNB
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Genre:

Reportage, Polemic, Serial

Subjects:

Engineers, Architecture, Engineering, Aesthetics, Creativity, Museums, Utilitarianism, Pollution


    In protesting against the neglect of the 'artistic element of national buildings' even in 'a quarter which we have been taught to look upon as the very centre of artistic design', complains that 'the new buildings of the South Kensington Museum South Kensington Museum
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itself were entrusted to a member Fowke, Francis (1823–65) ODNB
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of the Royal Engineers Royal Corps of Engineers
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, a profession which is supposed to be educated in the science rather than the art of building'. Concedes, however, that 'an engineer, naturally giving full weight to utilitarian considerations, and little likely to be hampered by a superabundance of artistic resources' has produced a set of buildings with 'a certain directness of purpose—a quality which, though very essential to any high degree of success, is not usually attained in architectural works of our day'. (372)



Section: Science and Philosophy

Academy,  2 (1870–71), 374–77.

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Recent Works on Chemistry  [1/3]John Ferguson, 'Recent Works on Chemistry', Academy, 2 (1870–71), 438–41
John Ferguson, 'Recent Works on Chemistry', Academy, 2 (1870–71), 455–58

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John Ferguson Ferguson, John (1838–1916) ODNB
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Genre:

Review, Serial

Publications reviewed:

Frankland 1870, Frankland, Edward 1870. Lecture Notes for Chemical Students, 2nd edn, London: Van Voorst
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Cooke 1870, Cooke, Josiah Parsons 1870. First Principles of Chemical Philosophy, London: Macmillan & Co.
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Miller 1871, Miller, William Allen 1871. Introduction to the Study of Inorganic Chemistry: With Questions for Examination, Text-Books of Science Series, London: Longmans
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Bloxam 1870 Bloxam, Charles Loudon 1870. Metals: Their Properties and Treatment, Text-Books of Science Series, London: Longmans
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Subjects:

Textbooks, Authorship, Theory, Chemistry, Matter Theory, Force, Nomenclature, Philosophy, Natural History, Industrial Chemistry, Commerce, Universities, Language, Crystallography, Education, Schools, Artisans, Popularization, Metallurgy, Illustration

People mentioned:

Nicolas Lemery, Lemery, Nicolas (1645–1715) DSB
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Charles Tomlinson Tomlinson, Charles (1808–97) ODNB
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Publications cited:

Daniell 1839, Daniell, John Frederic 1839. An Introduction to the Study of Chemical Philosophy: Being a Preparatory View of the Forces which Concur to the Production of Chemical Phenomena, London: J. W. Parker
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Agricola 1530 Agricola, Georg 1530. Bermannvs: sive, De re Metallica, Basileae: In aedibus Frobenianis
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    Begins by noting that 'Even when completest, a text-book can give but a narrow view of its subject', and adds that 'abstruse or unproved theory [...] is as unwelcome in a text-book of science as the higher mathematics would be to the student who is ignorant of the multiplication table'. The success of text-books also depends 'upon the interest thrown round them by the author's sympathy both with his subject and with his reader', and the books chosen for the present review have been selected for 'their manner or authorship rather than their matter'. (374–75) Describes the recent shift in the views of Edward Frankland Frankland, Sir Edward (1825–99) DSB DNODNBB
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'from contemplation of a shifting about of atoms, incomprehensible in themselves, as the sole aim of chemistry, to a recognition of force as concerned in chemical change'. Criticises Josiah P Cooke Cooke, Josiah Parsons, Jr (1827–94) DSB
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for failing to engage properly with the wider issues of chemical philosophy, and instead merely providing 'irrelevant chemical natural history', and observes that what philosophy there is is 'purely atomistic [...] carried out to its furthest verge'. (375) By using 'atomic language' and failing to 'apprehend energy and motion', Cooke, along with the French chemist Alfred J Naquet Naquet, Alfred Joseph (1834-1916) WBI
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, belongs 'philosophically to the seventeenth instead of the nineteenth century'. In addition, Cooke's argument is vitiated by his confusion of 'the frequency of occurrence and commercial importance or wide distribution of a substance with its value as evidence for chemical theory'. Notes in passing that 'chemistry in a university curriculum' is largely 'unsuited or unattractive to those engaged in classical or literary studies', and that even 'if chemistry be of little use to the classical scholar, Greek and Latin are indispensable to a chemist'. (376) Draws attention to Longmans' Longmans, firm
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'series of "Text-Books of Science", now in course of publication, which are intended for use in schools and for the self-instruction of workingmen', and suggests that a truly 'popular science book' ought 'to have good illustrations as substitutes for the objects themselves' (377).



Subsection: Scientific Notes

Academy,  2 (1870–71), 377–78.

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Physiology

Anon

Genre:

Regular Feature, News-Digest



[1] Cause of the Different Action of Fresh and Salt Water on Animal Life

Subjects:

Physiological Chemistry

People mentioned:

Félix A J Plateau Plateau, Félix Augustin Joseph (b. 1841) WBI
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[2] On the Cellular Structure of the Red Blood-Corpuscles

Subjects:

Physiology, Cell Biology


[3] Relations of Urea to Exercise

Subjects:

Physiology

People mentioned:

Austin Flint Flint, Austin (1836–1915) WBI
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[4] Action of Heart Poisons

Subjects:

Physiology, Neurology



Academy,  2 (1870–71), 378.

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Botany

Anon

Genre:

Regular Feature, News-Digest



[1] The Structure of Bog-Mosses

Subjects:

Botany, Taxonomy


[2] Peloria in Labiatæ

Subjects:

Botany


[3] The Cinchona in Jamaica and the United States

Subjects:

Agriculture, Horticulture, Imperialism

People mentioned:

C C Parry Parry, C C (fl. 1849) WBI
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[4] The Cinchona and Ipecacuanha in India

Subjects:

Agriculture, Horticulture, Botanical Gardens, Imperialism

People mentioned:

Joseph D Hooker Hooker, Sir Joseph Dalton (1817–1911) DSB ODNB
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Institutions mentioned:

Royal Botanical Gardens, Kew Royal Botanical Gardens, Kew
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[5] Flora of Palestine

Subjects:

Botany, Geology



Academy,  2 (1870–71), 378–79.

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Physics

Anon

Genre:

Regular Feature, News-Digest



[1] A New Method of Observing the Sun Spectroscopically

Subjects:

Spectroscopy, Astronomy

People mentioned:

Angelo Secchi Secchi, Angelo (Pietro Angelo) (1818–78) DSB
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[2] Leidenfrost's Phenomenon

Subjects:

Physics, Measurement


[3] On the Construction of a Filtering Apparatus on Bunsen's Principle

Subjects:

Physics, Instruments

People mentioned:

Robert W E Bunsen Bunsen, Robert Wilhelm Eberhard (1811–99) DSB
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Academy,  2 (1870–71), 379–80.

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Contents of the Journals

Anon

Genre:

News-Digest, Abstract

Publications abstracted:

Philosophische Monatshefte Philosophische Monatshefte (1868–94) Archiv für Systematische Philosophie (1895–1900+) BUCOP
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, Quarterly Review Quarterly Review (1809–1900+) Waterloo Directory
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, Edinburgh Review Edinburgh Review (1802–1900+) Waterloo Directory
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, Journal of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland Journal of Anthropology (1870–71) Journal of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland (1871–95+) Waterloo Directory
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[1] Philosophische Monatshefte

Subjects:

Philosophical Psychology


[2] [Edinburgh and Quarterly Reviews]

Subjects:

Darwinism, Descent, Human Species, Controversy

People mentioned:

Charles R Darwin, Darwin, Charles Robert (1809–82) DSB
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Alfred R Wallace Wallace, Alfred Russel (1823–1913) DSB
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Publications cited:

Darwin 1871a Darwin, Charles Robert 1871a. The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex, London: John Murray
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[3] [Journal of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland]

Subjects:

Periodicals, Societies, Institutions, Anthropology, Comparative Philology

People mentioned:

John Lubbock, Lubbock, Sir John, 4th Baronet and 1st Baron Avebury (1834–1913) DSB ODNB
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Charles S Wake, Wake, Charles Staniland (1835–1910) WBI
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Wilhelm H I Bleek Bleek, Wilhelm Heinrich Immanuel (1827–75) ODNB
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Institutions mentioned:

Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland
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Academy,  2 (1870–71), 380.

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[Untitled]

Anon

Genre:

News-Digest



[1] [Prospectus for a Proposed De Morgan Memorial]

Subjects:

Scientific Practitioners, Mathematics, Universities, Patronage

People mentioned:

Augustus De Morgan De Morgan, Augustus (1806–71) DSB
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Institutions mentioned:

University College London University College London
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^^ Back to the top of this issue

Issue [18] (15 August 1871)Expand    Contract

Section: Art and Archæology

Academy,  2 (1870–71), 395–96.

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New Buildings at South Kensington  [2/2]Basil Champneys, 'New Buildings at South Kensington', Academy, 2 (1870–71), 372

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Basil Champneys Champneys, Basil (1842–1935) ODNB
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Genre:

Reportage, Polemic, Serial

Subjects:

Architecture, Education, Schools


    Notes that the 'exterior' of 'the building intended for the new science schools South Kensington. science schools
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' on the east side of Exhibition Road is now 'all but complete', and gives a critical account of the building's 'red Fareham brick' facade, with ornamental work in terracotta, and ornate cornices (395).



Section: Science and Philosophy

Academy,  2 (1870–71), 398–400.

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[Review of 'Observations Made in the Pathological Institute of Jena', by Wilhelm Müller]

Anton Dohrn Dohrn, Felix Anton (1840–1909) DSB
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Genre:

Review

Publications reviewed:

Müller 1871a, Müller, Wilhelm 1871a. 'Ueber den Bau der Chorda dorsalis', Jenaische Zeitschrift für Medizin und Naturwissenschaft, 6, 327–53
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Müller 1871b, Müller, Wilhelm 1871b. 'Ueber Entwickelung und Bau der Hypophysis und des Processus infundibuli cerebri', Jenaische Zeitschrift für Medizin und Naturwissenschaft, 6, 354–425
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Müller 1871c, Müller, Wilhelm 1871c. 'Ein Fall von kystomatösen Adenom der Hypophysis', Jenaische Zeitschrift für Medizin und Naturwissenschaft, 6, 425–28
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Müller 1871d, Müller, Wilhelm 1871d. 'Ueber die Entwickelung der Schilddrüse', Jenaische Zeitschrift für Medizin und Naturwissenschaft, 6, 428–53
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Müller 1871e, Müller, Wilhelm 1871e. 'Zwei Fälle von angeborenem Adenom der Schilddrüse', Jenaische Zeitschrift für Medizin und Naturwissenschaft, 6, 454–56
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Müller 1871f, Müller, Wilhelm 1871f. 'Zwei Fälle von Epithelioma cylindrocellulare der Schilddrüse, nebst Bemerkungen zur Theorie der Epitheliombildung', Jenaische Zeitschrift für Medizin und Naturwissenschaft, 6, 456–76
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Müller 1871g, Müller, Wilhelm 1871g. 'Ein Fall von Spindelzellensarcom (Sarcoma fusocellulare) der Schilddrüse neben altem Kropf mit Metastasen auf Lymphdrüsen und Lungen', Jenaische Zeitschrift für Medizin und Naturwissenschaft, 6, 476–80
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Müller 1871h Müller, Wilhelm 1871h. 'Ueber myxomatöses, Adenom der Schilddrüse und dessen Beziehungen zum sog. Gallertkrebs', Jenaische Zeitschrift für Medizin und Naturwissenschaft, 6, 481–95
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Subjects:

Embryology, Pathology, Animal Development, Morphology, Comparative Anatomy, Neurology, Physiology, Evolution, Biology, Disciplinarity, Government, Darwinism, Education, Medical Practitioners


    Applauds the recent work of Wilhelm Müller Müller, Wilhelm (1832–1909) WBI
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which contains 'a singular mixture of embryology and pathology', and also 'embraces a field of comparative embryology that has hitherto remained wholly uncultivated' (398–99). Observes that Müller's conclusion that 'the chorda dorsalis [...] is very far from being a fundamental organ' of the skeleton 'corroborates and expands a view which had already been expressed by His His, Wilhelm (1831–1904) DSB
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in his History of the Development of the Fowl His, Wilhelm 1868. Untersuchungen über die erste Anlage des Wirbelthierleibes. Die erste Entwicklung des Hühnchens im Ei, Leipzig: F. C. W. Vogel
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', but also notes that Müller's researches on the development of the infundibulum area of the brain are 'in opposition to Carl Ernst v. Baer Baer, Karl Ernst von (1792–1876) DSB
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'. Warns that no 'attention should be paid to the opposition lately made by Dr. Donitz Dönitz, Friedrich Karl Wilhelm (1838–1912) WBI
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', because 'Dr. Donitz is evidently insufficiently acquainted with the problems of modern morphology'. (399) After reflecting on the potential of Müller's work for bringing about 'a new era within the domain of pathological anatomy' by using 'comparative anatomy and embryology [...] to assist the recognition of the nature of pathological processes and formations', suggests that there is even more importance in the way that 'the great idea of evolution is carried by Professor Müller into a region where it has been practically hitherto unknown. A bridge has thus been thrown across, connecting two long separated regions of human enquiry: and it cannot happen but that both will gain'. Indeed, the embryological 'department of science, founded by Caspar Friedrich Wolff Wolff, Caspar Friedrich (1734–94) DSB
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, and greatly expanded by Carl Ernst v. Baer, appears to be destined to play an important part in the development of the Darwinian theory'. Also complains about the 'still increasing exclusion of pure biological studies from the curriculum of medical studies on the part of the Prussian government', as well as the 'very short-sighted proceeding by which, in the year 1861, a compulsory knowledge of zoology and botany as fundamental information on the part of young medical men was discontinued at Berlin'. (400)



Academy,  2 (1870–71), 400–01.

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Dean Mansel

H Sidgwick Sidgwick, Henry (1838–1900) ODNB
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Genre:

Obituary

Subjects:

Philosophy, Metaphysics, Natural Theology

People mentioned:

Henry L Mansel Mansel, Henry Longueville (1820–71) ODNB
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Publications cited:

Mansel 1858 Mansel, Henry Longueville 1858. The Limits of Religious Thought Examined in Eight Lectures: Preached Before the University of Oxford, in the Year M.DCCC.LVIII, on the Foundation of the Late Rev. John Bampton, Bampton Lectures, London: J. Murray
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Subsection: Scientific Notes

Academy,  2 (1870–71), 401.

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Physiology

Anon

Genre:

Regular Feature, News-Digest



[1] Cause of Phosphorescence

Subjects:

Physiological Chemistry

People mentioned:

Paolo Panceri Panceri, Paolo (1833–77) WBI
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[2] Madness in a Horse

Subjects:

Animal Behaviour, Veterinary Science


[3] Improvements in the Spectrum Method of Detecting Blood

Subjects:

Spectroscopy, Microscopy, Instruments

People mentioned:

Henry C Sorby Sorby, Henry Clifton (1826–1908) DSB
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Academy,  2 (1870–71), 401–02.

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Zoology

Anon

Genre:

Regular Feature, News-Digest



[1] The Zoological Results of the 1870 Dredging Expedition of the Yacht Norna off the Coast of Spain and Portugal

Subjects:

Oceanography, Invertebrate Zoology, Biogeography, Patronage

People mentioned:

William S Kent, Kent, William Saville (fl. 1875–80) WBI
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Marshall Hall Hall, Marshall (1831–96) WBI
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[2] Deep-Sea Explorations

Subjects:

Oceanography, Government, Patronage

People mentioned:

William B Carpenter Carpenter, William Benjamin (1813–85) DSB
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[3] The Origin of Life

Subjects:

Darwinism, Evolution, Extra-Terrestrial Life

People mentioned:

Allen Thomson Thomson, Allen (1809–84) ODNB
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[4] Spontaneous Generation

Subjects:

Spontaneous Generation, Microbiology

People mentioned:

Frederick C Calvert Calvert, Frederick Crace (1819–73) ODNB
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Academy,  2 (1870–71), 402.

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Chemistry

Anon

Genre:

Regular Feature, News-Digest



[1] The Goalpara Meteorite

Subjects:

Mineralogy, Analytical Chemistry


[2] Hydrogenium Amalgam

Subjects:

Chemistry


[3] Arsenic in Sulphuretted Hydrogen

Subjects:

Analytical Chemistry, Crime



Section: Philology

Academy,  2 (1870–71), 405.

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[Review of Studies in Comparative Philology, by Adolf Bastian]

F Müller Max Müller, Friedrich (1823–1900) ODNB
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Genre:

Review

Publications reviewed:

Bastian 1870 Bastian, Adolf 1870. Sprachvergleichende Studien: mit besonderer Berucksichtigung der indochinesischen Sprachen, Liepzig: F. A. Brockhaus
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Subjects:

Comparative Philology, Ethnology, Race, Taxonomy


    Complains that the books of Adolf Bastian Bastian, Adolf (1826–1905) CBD
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too often have 'the air of having been written by a dilettante' and 'can scarcely be recognised as standard scientific works'. In particular, the present book gives the impression that 'the point of view which principally interests the author is not that of philology or of the science of language, but that of ethnology', but Bastian fails to recognize that 'language, if it is to have any ethnological value, must be regarded from the point of view of comparative philology'. Dismisses Bastian's 'opinion that a classification of races according to language would be just like that of flowers according to colours' as merely an old theory that was 'expressed several years ago, but in a milder form, by J. Oppert Oppert, Julius (1825–1905) WBI
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and other scholars, and was soon refuted in a style equally thorough and convincing by Professor Whitney Whitney, William Dwight (1827–94) CBD
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'. (405)



^^ Back to the top of this issue

Issue [19] (1 September 1871)Expand    Contract

Section: Science and Philosophy

Academy,  2 (1870–71), 417–18.

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[Review of Kant's Psychology Exhibited and Explained, by Jürgen B Meyer]

Edward Caird Caird, Edward (1835–1908) ODNB
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Genre:

Review

Publications reviewed:

Meyer 1870 Meyer, Jürgen Bona 1870. Kant's Psychologie: dargestellt und erortert, Berlin: W. Hertz
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Subjects:

Philosophical Psychology, Philosophy, Physics, Mathematics

People mentioned:

Immanuel Kant Kant, Immanuel (1724–1804) DSB
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Academy,  2 (1870–71), 418.

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[Review of Bernstein's Nerve and Muscle, by Julius Bernstein]

M Foster Foster, Sir Michael (1836–1907) DSB ODNB
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Genre:

Review

Publications reviewed:

Bernstein 1871 Bernstein, Julius 1871. Untersuchungen über den Erregungsvorgang im Nerven und Muskelsysteme, Heidelberg: Carl Winter
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Subjects:

Neurology, Physiology, Instruments

People mentioned:

Theodor W Engelmann, Engelmann, Theodor Wilhelm (1843–1909) DSB
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Gustav T Fechner Fechner, Gustav Theodor (1801–87) DSB
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Subsection: Scientific Notes

Academy,  2 (1870–71), 418–19.

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Chemistry

Anon

Genre:

Regular Feature, News-Digest



[1] On the Quantitative Separation of Nickel and Cobalt From Iron

Subjects:

Mineralogy, Analytical Chemistry

People mentioned:

Edouard H von Baumhauer Baumhauer, Edouard Henri von (1820–85) DSB
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[2] On the Olvin From the Pallas Meteoric Iron

Subjects:

Mineralogy, Analytical Chemistry

People mentioned:

Edouard H von Baumhauer Baumhauer, Edouard Henri von (1820–85) DSB
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[3] Neglect of Analytical Chemistry in Recent Times

Subjects:

Analytical Chemistry, Disciplinarity, Textbooks

People mentioned:

Carl R Fresenius Fresenius, Carl Remigius (1818–97) DSB
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Academy,  2 (1870–71), 419–20.

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Geology

Anon

Genre:

Regular Feature, News-Digest



[1] Volcanoes

Subjects:

Vulcanology, Geology


[2] Constitution of Coal

Subjects:

Mineralogy, Geology

People mentioned:

John W Dawson Dawson, Sir John William (1820–99) DSB ODNB
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[3] New Fossils

Subjects:

Palaeontology


[4] Fossil Bats

Subjects:

Palaeontology

People mentioned:

Edouard van Beneden Beneden, Edouard van (1846-1910) DSB
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[5] Difficulties of the Hypothesis of an Amazonian Glacier

Subjects:

Geology, Glaciology, Controversy

People mentioned:

James Orton, Orton, James (1830–77) DSB
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Louis Agassiz Agassiz, Louis (Jean Louis Rodolphe) (1807–73) DSB
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Academy,  2 (1870–71), 420.

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Zoology

Anon

Genre:

Regular Feature, News-Digest



[1] New British Zoophytes

Subjects:

Invertebrate Zoology

People mentioned:

Thomas Hincks Hincks, Thomas (1818–99) ODNB
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[2] New Sponge

Subjects:

Invertebrate Zoology



Section: History and Geography

Academy,  2 (1870–71), 422–23.

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[Review of The Book of Ser Marco Polo the Venetian, translated by Henry Yule]

N De Khanikof Khanykov, Nikolai (1819–78) RLIN
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Genre:

Review

Publications reviewed:

Polo 1871 Polo, Marco 1871. The Book of Ser Marco Polo, the Venetian: Concerning the Kingdoms and Marvels of the East, newly trans. and edited with notes by Colonel Henry Yule, 2 vols, London: J. Murray
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Subjects:

History of Science, Exploration, Collecting, Amusement

Publications cited:

Polo 1818 Polo, Marco 1818. The Travels of Marco Polo, a Venetian, in the Thirteenth Century: Being a Description, by that Early Traveller, of Remarkable Places and Things, in the Eastern Parts of the World, trans. by William Marsden, London: printed for the author [i.e. translator]
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    Explains that 'it was not till 1818 that the example was first set, by Marsden Marsden, William (1754–1836) ODNB
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, of applying serious and scientific treatment to the mass of curious and veracious facts which Marco Polo Polo, Marco (1254–1324) CBD
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had collected during twenty-seven years of his active life, and which for a long time had been looked upon as so much amusing fiction' (422).



Subsection: Intelligence

Academy,  2 (1870–71), 424.

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Central Africa

Anon

Genre:

Regular Feature, News-Digest

Subjects:

Exploration, Physical Geography, Ethnology, Superstition

People mentioned:

Gustav Nachtigal Nachtigal, Gustav (1834–85) CBD
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^^ Back to the top of this issue

Issue [20] (15 September 1871)Expand    Contract

Section: Art and Archæology

Academy,  2 (1870–71), 433.

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[Review of 'Brazilian Rock Inscriptions', by Charles F Hartt]

G Maspero Maspero, Sir Gaston (1846–1916) CBD
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Genre:

Review

Publications reviewed:

Hartt 1871 Hartt, Charles Frederick 1871. 'Brazilian Rock Inscriptions', American Naturalist, 5, 139–147
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Subjects:

Exploration, Ethnography

People mentioned:

Charles F Hartt Hartt, Charles Frederick (1840–78) WBI
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Section: Science and Philosophy

Academy,  2 (1870–71), 438–41.

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Recent Works on Chemistry  [2/3]John Ferguson, 'Recent Works on Chemistry', Academy, 2 (1870–71), 374–77
John Ferguson, 'Recent Works on Chemistry', Academy, 2 (1870–71), 455–58

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J Ferguson Ferguson, John (1838–1916) ODNB
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Genre:

Review, Serial

Publications reviewed:

Gorup-Besanez 1871a, Gorup-Besanez, Eugen Franz Frhr. von 1871a. Lehrbuch der Chemie, 4th edn, Braunschweig: Verlag von Friedrich Vieweg und Sohn
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Gorup-Besanez 1871b, Gorup-Besanez, Eugen Franz Frhr. von 1871b. Anleitung zur Qualitativen und Quantitativen Zoochemischen Analyse, 3rd edn, Braunschweig: Verlag von Friedrich Vieweg und Sohn
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Otto 1870 Otto, Friedrich Julius 1870. Anleitung zur Ausmittelung der Gifte: und zur Erkennung der Blutflecken bei gerichtlich-chemischen Untersuchungen, 4th edn, Braunschweig: Verlag von Friedrich Vieweg und Sohn
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Subjects:

Textbooks, Chemistry, Lecturing, Experiment, Laboratories, Reading, Education, Nomenclature, Physiological Chemistry, Pathology, Disease, Medical Treatment, Analytical Chemistry, Disciplinarity, Mapping, Adulteration, Illustration, Publishing

People mentioned:

Carl R Fresenius Fresenius, Carl Remigius (1818–97) DSB
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Publications cited:

Hoppe-Seyler 1870, Hoppe-Seyler, Felix 1870. Handbuch der physiologisch-und pathologisch-chemischen Analyse fur Aerzte und Studirende, 3rd edn, Berlin: A. Hirschwald
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Otto 1857 Otto, Friedrich Julius 1857. A Manual of the Detection of Poisons by Medico-Chemical Analysis, trans. (with notes and additions) by William Elderhorst, New York; London: H. Bailliere
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    Points out that on the 'nature of chemical attraction' and 'the laws of combination by weight [...] rests the chemical system', and yet these subjects 'in English text-books are very often slurred over altogether, or deduced from the atomic hypothesis'. Insists that 'the student' of chemistry must 'be made first of all acquainted with the laws themselves' before moving on to the 'atomic hypothesis'. Notes the 'increase in knowledge' in physiological chemistry since the 1850s, and suggests that 'While some few things remain unchanged, the whole subject has been remodelled' and that 'the darkness which hung over many zoochemical problems has been to a slight extent dispelled'. In particular, 'Zoochemical analysis is now rapidly becoming one of the chief helps in constructing scientific physiology and in the scientific treatment of disease', and the time 'is not very far off' when 'it will form an essential part of the training and equipment of every medical student'. (439) In discussing the various divisions of chemical research, observes that Eugen F F von Gorup-Besanez Gorup-Besanez, Eugen Franz Frhr. von (1817–78) WBI
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has 'a clearly segregative mind, which is able to survey the whole subject as a dissected map' (440). Concludes by noting that fine woodcuts 'form one of the features of the scientific publications from Vieweg's Vieweg (Friedrich) und Sohn, Braunschweig
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establishment', and that 'In this respect they are as unlike as possible to English scientific books, in which the woodcuts, even when not inaccurate, are coarse, or blurred, or in some way disagreeable to the eye', although 'the New Sydenham Society's New Sydenham Society
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version of Neubauer's book Neubauer, Karl Theodor Ludwig and Vogel, Julius 1863. A Guide to the Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of the Urine: Designed Especially for the Use of Medical Men, trans. by William O. Markham, 4th edn, London: New Sydenham Society
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' is 'excellently illustrated, far above what is usually seen in this country' (440–41).



Subsection: Scientific Notes

Academy,  2 (1870–71), 441–42.

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Physiology

Anon

Genre:

Regular Feature, News-Digest



[1] Influence of Heat on Animals

Subjects:

Physiology, Heat, Neurology, Physiological Chemistry

People mentioned:

Claude Bernard Bernard, Claude (1813–78) DSB
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[2] Electromotor Properties of Embryonic Tissues

Subjects:

Embryology, Neurology, Electricity

People mentioned:

Gabriel G Valentin Valentin, Gabriel Gustav (1810–83) DSB
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[3] Absorption of Insoluble Substances

Subjects:

Physiology



Academy,  2 (1870–71), 442.

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Botany

Anon

Genre:

Regular Feature, News-Digest



[1] Mimicry in Plants

Subjects:

Botany, Instinct, Nomenclature

People mentioned:

William T Thiselton-Dyer Thiselton-Dyer, Sir William Turner (1843–1928) DSB
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[2] Parasitism of Cuscuta

Subjects:

Botany, Parasitology


[3] The Madras Fungus-Foot

Subjects:

Disease, Degeneration, Microscopy

People mentioned:

Jabez Hogg Hogg, Jabez (1817–99) ODNB
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[4] The Classification of Fruit

Subjects:

Botany, Taxonomy



Academy,  2 (1870–71), 442.

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Geography, &c.

Anon

Genre:

Regular Feature, News-Digest



[1] [Russian Geographical Society]

Subjects:

Ethnography, Race


[2] More Dredging

Subjects:

Oceanography

People mentioned:

Louis Agassiz Agassiz, Louis (Jean Louis Rodolphe) (1807–73) DSB
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Academy,  2 (1870–71), 442–43.

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Chemistry

Anon

Genre:

Regular Feature, News-Digest



[1] On the Artificial Formation of Dulcite

Subjects:

Organic Chemistry

People mentioned:

Apollinaire Bouchardat Bouchardat, Apollinaire (1806–86) WBI
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[2] On the Synthesis of Uric Acid Derivatives

Subjects:

Physiological Chemistry


[3] On the Normal Alcohols of the Ethylic Series

Subjects:

Chemistry



Academy,  2 (1870–71), 443.

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Physics

Anon

Genre:

Regular Feature, News-Digest



[1] On the Influence of Calcination of Some Metallic Oxides on the Heat Evolved During Their Combination

Subjects:

Physics, Heat


[2] On the Influence Exercised by the Crystallization of Oxide of Cadmium on the Heat Disengaged During Combination

Subjects:

Physics, Heat


[3] The Influence of the Moon on Meteorological Phenomena

Subjects:

Astronomy, Meteorology



Section: Philology

Academy,  2 (1870–71), 446–47.

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[Review of Dictionaire d'Étymologie Daco-Romane, by Alexandru de Cihac]

E S Roberts Roberts, Ernest Stewart (1847–1912) ODNB
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Genre:

Review

Publications reviewed:

Cihac 1870 Cihac, A. de 1870. Dictionnaire d'étymologie daco-romane, Frankfurt: Ludolphe St-Giar
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Subjects:

Comparative Philology, Nomenclature, Taxonomy


    Suggests that there is 'yet another, perhaps very limited, section of readers to whom M. de Cihac's Cihac, Alexandru de (1825–87) RLIN
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book may prove useful—students of Natural Science. We can hardly turn over a page without finding the equivalent in Wallachian of some Linnæan animal or vegetable' (447).



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Issue [21] (1 October 1871)Expand    Contract

Section: Science

Academy,  2 (1870–71), 455–58.

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Recent Works on Chemistry  [3/3]John Ferguson, 'Recent Works on Chemistry', Academy, 2 (1870–71), 374–77
John Ferguson, 'Recent Works on Chemistry', Academy, 2 (1870–71), 438–41

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John Ferguson Ferguson, John (1838–1916) ODNB
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Genre:

Review, Serial

Publications reviewed:

Valentin 1871, Valentin, William George 1871. A Laboratory Text Book of Practical Chemistry; or, Introduction to Qualitative Analysis, London: Churchill and Sons
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Crookes 1871, Crookes, William 1871. Select Methods in Chemical Analysis (Chiefly Inorganic), London: Longmans, Green and Co.
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Storer 1870 Storer, Francis Humphreys 1870. A Cyclopædia of Quantitative Chemical Analysis, Part 1, Boston: Sever, Francis, and Co.
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Subjects:

Analytical Chemistry, Textbooks, Education, Lecturing, Laboratories, Experiment, Induction, Methodology, Inorganic Chemistry, Declinism, Nomenclature, Illustration


    Bemoans the fact that 'there is no generally recognised standard work in English on Chemical Analysis', and that while 'Other nations can quote Fresenius Fresenius, Carl Remigius (1818–97) DSB
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either in the original or in a translation [...] English chemists [...] have but a Barmecide feast of it, in the author's name without his book'. Observes that the 'advantage of Fresenius' Qualitative Analysis Fresenius, Carl Remigius 1841. Anleitung zur qualitativen chemischen Analyse; oder Die Lehre von den Operationen, von den Reagentien und von dem Verhalten der bekannteren Körper zu Reagentien, Braunschweig: Verlag von Friedrich Vieweg und Sohn
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lay in its completeness and method', and recommends that it is 'advisable to retranslate the thirteenth edition Fresenius, Carl Remigius 1870. Anleitung zur qualitativen chemischen Analyse; oder Die Lehre von den Operationen, von den Reagentien und von dem Verhalten der bekannteren Körper zu Reagentien, 13th edn, Braunschweig: Verlag von Friedrich Vieweg und Sohn
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of the original'. In the mean time, however, 'Mr. Valentin's Valentin, William George (1829–79) WBI
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work goes part of the way to supplying the want'. (455) Valentin's book, though, is 'not a mere guide to qualitative analysis, but to the practical course in the College of Chemistry Royal College of Chemistry
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', and it is 'written from the point of view of the teacher, rather than of the mere chemist, and is addressed to teachers' (456). Praises William Crookes Crookes, Sir William (1832–1919) DSB ODNB
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as 'almost the only one at present who, by translation and original writing, tries to keep English chemical literature from falling completely behind the times', and notes that his present book, 'a very full collection' of myriad pieces from 'the Chemical News Chemical News (1859–1900+) Waterloo Directory
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and other journals', is full of 'critical remarks' and is 'not intended [...] for tyros' (457).



Academy,  2 (1870–71), 458.

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The Arctic Regions

Anon

Genre:

News-Commentary

Subjects:

Exploration, Patronage, Commerce, Steamships, Navigation, Physical Geography

People mentioned:

Theodor von Heuglin, Heuglin, Theodor von (1824–76) CBD
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Adolf E Nordenskjöld Nordenskjöld, Adolf Erik (Nils Adolf Erik) (1832–1901) DSB
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Academy,  2 (1870–71), 458.

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To the Editor of The Academy

H C Sorby, 9, West View, Ilkley Sorby, Henry Clifton (1826–1908) DSB
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Genre:

Letter

Subjects:

Heat, Physiological Chemistry

People mentioned:

Claude Bernard Bernard, Claude (1813–78) DSB
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See also:

Anon, '[1] Influence of Heat on Animals', Academy, 2 (1870–71), 441–42


Subsection: Scientific Notes

Academy,  2 (1870–71), 458–59.

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Geology

Anon

Genre:

Regular Feature, News-Digest



[1] Sequence of the Glacial Beds

Subjects:

Geology, Stratigraphy


[2] The Crag-Formation of Iceland

Subjects:

Geology, Stratigraphy, Zoology


[3] A New Arachnide in the Coal-Measures

Subjects:

Palaeontology, Entomology, Comparative Anatomy

Publications cited:

Buckland 1836 Buckland, William 1836. Geology and Mineralogy Considered with Reference to Natural Theology, 2 vols, Bridgewater Treatises, 6, London: William Pickering
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[4] The Geological Collection of N. T. Wetherell, Esq., F.G.S.

Subjects:

Palaeontology, Collecting, Amateurism, Railways, Museums

People mentioned:

Nathaniel T Wetherell Wetherell, Nathaniel Thomas (1800–75) ODNB
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Institutions mentioned:

British Museum British Museum
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Academy,  2 (1870–71), 459.

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Chemistry

Anon

Genre:

Regular Feature, News-Digest



[1] The Breitenbach Meteorite

Subjects:

Mineralogy, Analytical Chemistry


[2] The Nitration of Chloroform

Subjects:

Organic Chemistry


[3] The Gases Occluded by Coal

Subjects:

Gas Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry


[4] Nouveau feu lorrain

Subjects:

Organic Chemistry


[5] The Amalgams of Potassium and Sodium

Subjects:

Organic Chemistry


[6] The Searsmont Meteorite

Subjects:

Mineralogy, Analytical Chemistry



Academy,  2 (1870–71), 459–60.

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Miscellaneous

Anon

Genre:

Regular Feature, News-Digest



[1] Darwinism

Subjects:

Darwinism, Controversy, Religion

People mentioned:

Charles R Darwin, Darwin, Charles Robert (1809–82) DSB
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Chauncey Wright, Wright, Chauncey (1830–75) WBI
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St George J Mivart Mivart, St George Jackson (1827–1900) DSB
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Publications cited:

Wright 1871 Wright, Chauncey 1871. Darwinism: Being an Examination of Mr. St. George Mivart's "Genesis of Species", reprinted from the North American Review with additions, London: J. Murray
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[2] [Death of Prof. Schweigger-Seidel]

Subjects:

Physiology, Neurology, Laboratories, Universities

People mentioned:

Franz Schweigger-Seidel, Schweigger-Seidel, Franz (1834–71) WBI
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Carl F W Ludwig Ludwig, Carl Friedrich Wilhelm (1816–95) DSB
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Section: History

Academy,  2 (1870–71), 460–62.

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Early Eastern Geography

Th Nöldeke Nöldeke, Theodor (1836–1930) WBI
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Genre:

Review

Publications reviewed:

Goeje 1870 Goeje, Michäel Jan de, ed. 1870. Bibliotheca geographorum Arabicorum, Lugduni Batavorum: E. J. Brill
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Subjects:

Physical Geography, Mapping, Navigation, Ancient Authorities, History of Science


    Explains that a 'specially prominent place among Arabian sciences belongs to geography. Besides the Greeks, and a few Roman authors, the only students of this branch of knowledge till quite modern times have been Arabic writers'. Indeed, at 'a time when, late in the middle ages, the geographical works of European nations were still based ultimately on the statements of Pliny Pliny (Gaius Plinius Secundus) (c. 23–79) DSB
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, the subject had already been handled in the East by a series of accurate and original writers'. (460)



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Issue [22] (15 October 1871)Expand    Contract

Section: General Literature

Academy,  2 (1870–71), 469–71.

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Recent Alpine Literature

James R Thursfield Thursfield, Sir James Richard (1840–1923) ODNB
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Genre:

Review

Publications reviewed:

Tyndall 1871c Tyndall, John 1871c. Hours of Exercise in the Alps, London: Longmans, Green and Co.
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Subjects:

Scientific Naturalism, Glaciology, Fieldwork, Laboratories, Anti-Scientism, Feeling, Imagination


    Admits that 'we all know how Dr. Tyndall Tyndall, John (1820–93) DSB
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has made the glaciers his laboratory, and has contributed more than any living man to our knowledge of their phenomena', but finds nevertheless that Tyndall's 'emotional relation [...] to the mountains' is 'less genuine and spontaneous' than that of a less scientifically-minded climber like Leslie Stephen Stephen, Sir Leslie (1832–1904) ODNB
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(469). In fact, 'Dr. Tyndall's mind, saturated as it is with scientific ideas, refuses to accept others, so that even the expression of emotion naturally takes a scientific form' (469–70). For him 'science seems to do duty for emotion' and also 'seems to take the place of humour' (470).



Section: Science and Philosophy

Academy,  2 (1870–71), 478–80.

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[Review of A Memoir on the Indian Surveys, by Clements R Markham]

H H Godwin-Austen Godwin-Austen, Henry Haversham (1834–1923) ODNB
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Genre:

Review

Publications reviewed:

Markham 1871 Markham, Clements Robert 1871. A Memoir on the Indian Surveys, London: Allen & Co.
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Subjects:

Imperialism, Exploration, Government, Mapping, Navigation, Measurement, Instruments, Instrument-makers, Internationalism, Engineers, Heroism, Skill, Expertise, Endeavour, Disease, Photography, Geology, Palaeontology, Archaeology, Meteorology, Physical Geography

Institutions mentioned:

Army Army
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    Details the various naval and land surveys of India since the 1760s, emphasizing the 'unflagging zeal and energy' of the surveyors and highlighting their 'life of constant exposure to sun and malaria, undermining and cutting off in the prime of life the assistants employed' (480). Explains that 'Major Lambton Lambton, William ([1753–69]–1823) ODNB
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, of H. M. 33rd Regiment, was the originator of a rigorous system of triangulation' (479) which has been used in all subsequent surveys, although there has been a 'never ceasing extension of the great system of triangulation, with the revision of some of the earlier work of Lambton, imperative and due to the very great improvement in all instrumental equipment since his day' (480). Also reports that Lambton's '3-foot theodolite, by Cary, was captured at sea by the French frigate Piémontaise, and taken to the Mauritius; but science was respected and honoured by the chivalrous French governor de Caen, who forwarded it on to Madras with a complimentary letter to the governor', and acknowledges that the French were the 'first to recognise' the 'important labours' of Lambton, who in Britain was still 'called upon, from time to time, to demonstrate the utility of his work'. Goes on to describe the work of George Everest Everest, Sir George (1790–1866) ODNB
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, who 'inherited the zeal of the old chief Lambton' and 'was the designer of the "gridiron system"' of measurement which allowed the great meridional arc of India to be fixed. This heroic achievement was given a proper monument when Everest's successor Andrew S Waugh Waugh, Sir Andrew Scott (1810–78) ODNB
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named the 'highest peak' of the north-eastern Himalayan series 'after his old chief, "Mount Everest"'. (479) Notes that more recently the 'process of photozincography was introduced for the first time in India, and has since proved of immense value, in the rapid execution of cartography' (480).



Academy,  2 (1870–71), 481.

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[Review of Life Theories and Their Influence on Religious Thought, by Lionel S Beale]

H Sidgwick Sidgwick, Henry (1838–1900) ODNB
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Genre:

Review

Publications reviewed:

Beale 1871 Beale, Lionel Smith 1871. Life Theories: Their Influence Upon Religious Thought, London: J. & A. Churchill
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Subjects:

Controversy, Biology, Philosophy, Religion, Matter Theory, Force, Energy, Natural Law, Vitalism, Providence,

People mentioned:

Lionel S Beale, Beale, Lionel Smith (1828–1906) DSB
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Thomas H Huxley Huxley, Thomas Henry (1825–95) DSB
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Subsection: Scientific Notes

Academy,  2 (1870–71), 481–82.

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Physiology

Anon

Genre:

Regular Feature, News-Digest



[1] On the Colouring Matter of Some Aphides

Subjects:

Physiological Chemistry

People mentioned:

Henry C Sorby Sorby, Henry Clifton (1826–1908) DSB
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[2] The Snout of the Mole as a Tactile Organ

Subjects:

Physiology, Neurology


[3] The External Ear of the Mouse as a Tactile Organ

Subjects:

Physiology, Neurology



Academy,  2 (1870–71), 482.

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Zoology

Anon

Genre:

Regular Feature, News-Digest



[1] Development of the Radiolaria

Subjects:

Microbiology


[2] New Gigantic Salamander

Subjects:

Discovery, Zoology, Geology

People mentioned:

Armand David David, Armand (1826–1900) WBI
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[3] Nomenclature of Foraminifera

Subjects:

Invertebrate Zoology, Nomenclature, Taxonomy

People mentioned:

Thomas H Huxley Huxley, Thomas Henry (1825–95) DSB
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[4] Hæmatozoa

Subjects:

Microbiology, Parasitology

People mentioned:

E Ray Lankester Lankester, Sir Edwin Ray (1847–1929) DSB ODNB
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[5] New Rotifers

Subjects:

Microbiology



Academy,  2 (1870–71), 482–83.

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Botany

Anon

Genre:

Regular Feature, News-Digest



[1] The Structure of Fossil Cryptograms

Subjects:

Botany, Palaeontology

People mentioned:

William C Williamson Williamson, William Crawford (1816–95) DSB
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[2] Influence of the Period of Fecundation on the Sex of Plants

Subjects:

Embryology, Gender, Botany, Sex

Publications cited:

[Chambers] 1844 [Chambers, Robert] 1844. Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation, London: John Churchill
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Academy,  2 (1870–71), 483.

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Physics

Anon

Genre:

Regular Feature, News-Digest



[1] On the Freezing of Water

Subjects:

Physics


[2] On the Spectra of Some of the Elements

Subjects:

Spectroscopy


[3] On the Influence of the Size of the Electrode in a Battery

Subjects:

Electricity, Instruments, Telegraphy



^^ Back to the top of this issue

Issue [23] (1 November 1871)Expand    Contract

Section: General Literature

Academy,  2 (1870–71), 489–90.

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[Review of Miscellanies, by John A Symonds]

G A Simcox Simcox, George Augustus (b. 1841) WBI
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Genre:

Review

Publications reviewed:

Symonds 1871 Symonds, John Addington 1871. Miscellanies: Selected and Edited, with an Introductory Memoir by His Son, Bristol: J.W. Arrowsmith; London: Simpkin, Marshall, Hamilton, Kent & Co.
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Subjects:

Medical Practitioners, Psychology, Neurology, Health, Statistics

People mentioned:

John A Symonds Symonds, John Addington ()1807–71 ODNB
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Section: Science and Philosophy

Academy,  2 (1870–71), 496–98.

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[Review of Embryology of Vermes and Arthropoda, by Aleksandr O Kovalevsky]

Anton Dohrn Dohrn, Felix Anton (1840–1909) DSB
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Genre:

Review

Publications reviewed:

Kovalevsky 1871 Kovalevsky, Aleksandr Onufrievich 1871. Embryologische Studien an Würmern und Arthropoden, Mémoires de l'Académie des sciences de St. Pétersbourg, St. Pétersbourg: L'Academie impériale des sciences
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Subjects:

Zoology, Embryology, Darwinism, Evolution, Taxonomy, Animal Development, Morphology, Biology, Invertebrate Zoology, Descent, Human Species, Controversy, Comparative Anatomy, Entomology, Nomenclature, Error

People mentioned:

Karl W Kupffer, Kupffer, Karl Wilhelm (1829–1902) WBI
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Martin H Rathke, Rathke, Martin Heinrich (1793–1860) DSB
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August F L Weismann, Weismann, August Friedrich Leopold (1834–1914) DSB
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Elias Mecznikow, Mecznikow, Elias (fl. 1866) RLIN
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Karl G F R Leuckart Leuckart, Karl Georg Friedrich Rudolf (1822–98) DSB
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Publications cited:

Darwin 1859, Darwin, Charles Robert 1859. On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection; or, The Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life, London: John Murray
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Müller 1864, Müller, Fritz 1864. Für Darwin, Leipzig: Wilhelm Engelmann
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Haeckel 1866 Haeckel, Ernst Heinrich Philipp August 1866. Generelle Morphologie der Organismen. Allgemeine Grundzüge der organischen Formen-Wissenschaft, mechanisch begründet durch die von C. Darwin reformirte Descendenz-Theorie, Berlin: G. Reimer
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    Although Charles R Darwin Darwin, Charles Robert (1809–82) DSB
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himself has perhaps paid too little attention to the subject, there 'can not be the least hesitation in saying' that the 'great amount of embryological work' in recent years is 'in great part due to the Darwinian theory of evolution' (496). Most importantly, the work of Fritz Müller Müller, Fritz (Johann Friedrich Theodor) (1822–97) DSB
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and Ernst H P A Haeckel Haeckel, Ernst Heinrich Philipp August (1834–1919) DSB
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has established the law that 'ontogenetical development is the short and compressed recapitulation of the phylogenetical development', a law which 'laid open to the students of biology [...] an immense field of problems' but also 'a field which promised extraordinary rewards for strenuous and judiciously made investigation' (496–97). In Germany and Russia 'embryology became the favourite study' and soon elicited 'great excitement'. Indeed, Aleksandr O Kovalevsky's Kovalevsky, Aleksandr Onufrievich (1840–1901) DSB
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work on the development of the Ascidia and Amphioxus established 'a close genealogical union [...] connecting the Vertebrates with a lower type' and 'fairly bridged over' that 'great gulf, which separated the highest class of animals, including at its very top Man himself, from all the others'. Inevitably, this 'was like an earthquake, shaking the well-established truths of former times, and menacing their complete overthrow and ruin', and it was made worse by Carl Gegenbaur Gegenbaur, Carl (1826–1903) DSB
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scrapping 'a great deal of the old doctrines' in the second edition of his Grundzüge der vergleichenden Anatomie Gegenbaur, Carl 1870. Grundzüge der vergleichenden Anatomie, Leipzig: Wilhelm Engelmann
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which has become 'the text-book and base of modern Morphology'. (497) Now in the 'rather unknown field' of the embryology of worms Kovalevsky is seeking to refute the arguments of Mitrofan Ganin Ganin, Mitrofan (fl. 1869) RLIN
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and demonstrate the 'genealogical union' of vertebrates, arthropods, and Vermes (497–98). After noting certain points on which 'the mode of demonstration which Kovalevski has taken cannot lead to a successful end', the review concludes that the 'great question of the unity of the organic composition—"l'unité de composition organique" of Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Étienne (1772–1844) DSB
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—as opposed to the discrimination of types in the Cuvierian Cuvier, Georges (1769–1832) DSB
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sense, remains therefore still open, though we are inclined to consider Kovalevski's work [...] as a decided step towards a final solution of this great problem' (498).



Subsection: Scientific Notes

Academy,  2 (1870–71), 499–500.

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Geography

Anon

Genre:

Regular Feature, News-Digest



[1] The Open Polar Sea

Subjects:

Exploration, Physical Geography, Oceanography

People mentioned:

Sherard Osborn, Osborn, Sherard (1822–75) ODNB
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Charles F Hall, Hall, Charles Francis (1821–71) CBD
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August Petermann Petermann, August (1822–78) ODNB
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[2] Interior of Greenland

Subjects:

Exploration, Physical Geography


[3] China

Subjects:

Exploration, Geology

People mentioned:

Ferdinand von Richthofen Richthofen, Ferdinand von (1833–1905) DSB
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Academy,  2 (1870–71), 500.

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Physiology

Anon

Genre:

Regular Feature, News-Digest



[1] Termination of the Nerves in the Cornea

Subjects:

Physiology, Neurology


[2] Velocity of Vision

Subjects:

Neurology, Light

People mentioned:

Nikolai I Baxt, Baxt, Nikolai Ignat'evich (b. 1843) RLIN
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Hermann von Helmholtz Helmholtz, Hermann von (1821–94) DSB
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[3] The Physiological Action of Extract of Meat (Flesh-Broth, Fleischbrühe) and of the Alkaline Salts

Subjects:

Physiological Chemistry, Industrial Chemistry, Manufactories, Medical Treatment, Nutrition

People mentioned:

Justus von Liebig, Liebig, Justus von (1803–73) DSB
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Gustav von Bunge Bunge, Gustav von (1844–1920) DSB
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[4] Effects of Swinging in Depressing the Temperature of the Body

Subjects:

Physiology


[5] On the Origin and Distribution of Mycrozymes (Bacteria) in Water

Subjects:

Bacteriology, Putrefaction, Spontaneous Generation

People mentioned:

John S Burdon-Sanderson, Burdon-Sanderson, Sir John Scott, 1st Baronet (1828–1905) ODNB
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Henry C Bastian Bastian, Henry Charlton (1837–1915) DSB
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Academy,  2 (1870–71), 500–01.

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Geology

Anon

Genre:

Regular Feature, News-Digest



[1] Contemporaneity of Man with Extinct Mammalia

Subjects:

Mining, Serendipity, Palaeontology, Archaeology, Human Species

People mentioned:

William S Symonds, Symonds, William Samuel (1818–87) ODNB
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Richard Owen Owen, Richard (1804–92) DSB
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[2] [New Plesiosaurian Reptile from the Portland Limestone]

Subjects:

Palaeontology, Geology


[3] New Fossil Fish

Subjects:

Palaeontology, Comparative Anatomy

People mentioned:

Tiberius C Winkler Winkler, Tiberius Cornelius (b. 1822) WBI
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[4] Affinities of Sivatherium

Subjects:

Palaeontology, Comparative Anatomy


[5] New Tertiary Crustacea

Subjects:

Palaeontology

People mentioned:

Ferdinand Stoliczka Stoliczka, Ferdinand (1838–74) WBI
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[6] Effect of Alcohol on Dogs

Subjects:

Narcotics, Animal Behaviour, Pathology



Academy,  2 (1870–71), 501–02.

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Chemistry

Anon

Genre:

Regular Feature, News-Digest



[1] Meteoric Graphite

Subjects:

Mineralogy, Analytical Chemistry


[2] On the Occurrence of Amygdaline and a New Body Resembling Asparagine in the Vicia Sativa

Subjects:

Organic Chemistry


[3] The Sea-Water of the Coast of Sweden

Subjects:

Oceanography, Hydrography, Analytical Chemistry


[4] Masses of Meteoric Iron from Virginia

Subjects:

Mineralogy, Analytical Chemistry, Serendipity


[5] Test for Nitrous Acid

Subjects:

Analytical Chemistry


[6] Hydrated Carbonate of Lime

Subjects:

Organic Chemistry

People mentioned:

Karl F Rammelsberg Rammelsberg, Karl Friedrich (1813–99) DSB
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[7] Conversion of Acetone into Lactic Acid

Subjects:

Organic Chemistry



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Issue [24] (15 November 1871)Expand    Contract

Section: General Literature

Subsection: Literary Notes

Academy,  2 (1870–71), 512.

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[A Letter from Alfred R Wallace on Spiritualism]

Anon

Genre:

Regular Feature, News-Digest

Subjects:

Spiritualism, Periodicals, Controversy

People mentioned:

Alfred R Wallace, Wallace, Alfred Russel (1823–1913) DSB
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Robert Hare Hare, Robert (1781–1858) DSB
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Publications cited:

[Carpenter] 1871 [Carpenter, William Benjamin] 1871. 'Spiritualism and its Recent Converts', Quarterly Review, 131, 310–53
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Academy,  2 (1870–71), 512.

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[Professor Huxley's Reply to Mr Mivart]

Anon

Genre:

Regular Feature, News-Digest

Subjects:

Darwinism, Evolution, Descent, Human Species, Controversy, Religious Authority, Error

People mentioned:

Thomas H Huxley, Huxley, Thomas Henry (1825–95) DSB
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St George J Mivart, Mivart, St George Jackson (1827–1900) DSB
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Francisco de Suárez Suárez, Francisco de (1548–1617) CBD
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Section: Theology

Academy,  2 (1870–71), 517–18.

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[Review of A New System of Christian Dogma, by Alois E Biedermann]

H Nettleship Nettleship, Henry (1839–93) ODNB
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Genre:

Review

Publications reviewed:

Biedermann 1869 Biedermann, Alois Emanuel 1869. Christliche Dogmatik, Zurich: Orell, Füssli & Co.
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Subjects:

Christianity, Rationalism, Analytical Chemistry, Analogy


    Compares the 'religious life', which is 'independent in itself of the process of thought which analyses its forms', with the work of a 'chemist who analyses water and air into their elements' but 'drinks and breathes them in the same form as the ignorant multitude'. Furthermore, 'as the chemist's power of analysis enables him to discover and eliminate noxious elements, where they exist, in water and air, so the forms of religious intuition are criticized and progressively spiritualized by the action of reason'. (518)



Section: Science and Philosophy

Academy,  2 (1870–71), 519–21.

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[Review of The History of Philosophy From Thales to Comte, by George H Lewes]

H Sidgwick Sidgwick, Henry (1838–1900) ODNB
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Genre:

Review

Publications reviewed:

Lewes 1871 Lewes, George Henry 1871. The History of Philosophy from Thales to Comte, 4th edn, (corrected and partly rewritten), 2 vols, London: Longmans, Green, and Co.
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Subjects:

Philosophy, Popularization, Metaphysics, Positivism

People mentioned:

Immanuel Kant Kant, Immanuel (1724–1804) DSB
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    Remarks that from 'the hostile eminence of Positivism' George H Lewes Lewes, George Henry (1817–78) ODNB
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'makes, as it were, daring and successful raids into the metaphysical regions: but does not seem to seize the citadels and conquer the country' (520).



Academy,  2 (1870–71), 521–22.

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[Review of Report of the Commissioners Appointed to Inquire into the Several Matters Relating to Coal in the United Kingdom]

Henry Woodward Woodward, Henry (1832–1921) DNBS
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Genre:

Review

Publications reviewed:

Report of the Coal Commissioners Report of the Coal Commissioners: Report of the Commissioners Appointed to Inquire into the Several Matters Relating to Coal in the United Kingdom, House of Commons Parliamentary Papers, Session 1871, [C.435], 18, 1–174
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Subjects:

Endeavour, Mining, Economic Geology, Stratigraphy, Government, National Efficiency

People mentioned:

Andrew C Ramsay, Ramsay, Sir Andrew Crombie (1814–91) DSB
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Joseph Prestwich, Prestwich, Sir Joseph (1812–96) DSB
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Henry H Godwin-Austen, Godwin-Austen, Henry Haversham (1834–1923) ODNB
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Roderick I Murchison Murchison, Sir Roderick Impey, 1st Baronet (1792–1871) DSBODNB
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    Observes that 'we have in the British Isles an available amount of coal equal to 146,480 millions of tons, and from careful estimates of the increasing consumption of coal as proved during the last fourteen years, it is calculated that we have a store that will last about 276 years'. This is 'sufficiently alarming', and means that the 'great question of the existence of coal in the south-east of England' must be 'settled' at last as a matter of urgency'. (522)



Subsection: Scientific Notes

Academy,  2 (1870–71), 522–23.

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Zoology

Anon

Genre:

Regular Feature, News-Digest



[1] The Origin of Insects

Subjects:

Entomology, Darwinism, Evolution


[2] Change in the Habits of a Bird

Subjects:

Ornithology, Animal Behaviour, Imperialism


[3] Phosphoric Properties of the Glowworm

Subjects:

Physiological Chemistry


[4] Sericulture

Subjects:

Bacteriology, Parasitology, Industry

People mentioned:

Louis Pasteur Pasteur, Louis (1822–95) DSB
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[5] Vine Disease

Subjects:

Parasitology, Agriculture


[6] Microzooic Disease

Subjects:

Bacteriology, Agriculture, Veterinary Science, Antiseptics


[7] New Phyllopodous Crustacean

Subjects:

Invertebrate Zoology

People mentioned:

Alpheus S Packard Packard, Alpheus Spring (1839–1905) WBI
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[8] Transformations of Squamipinnate Fishes

Subjects:

Zoology, Taxonomy


[9] Facial Arches of Embryo Salmon

Subjects:

Embryology, Comparative Anatomy

People mentioned:

William K Parker Parker, William Kitchen (1823–90) ODNB
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Academy,  2 (1870–71), 523.

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Botany

Anon

Genre:

Regular Feature, News-Digest



[1] The Monocotyledon the Universal Type of Seeds

Subjects:

Botany

People mentioned:

Thomas Meehan Meehan, Thomas (1826–1901) WBI
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[2] Influence of Green Light on the Sensitive Plant

Subjects:

Botany, Light



Academy,  2 (1870–71), 523–24.

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Physics

Anon

Genre:

Regular Feature, News-Digest



[1] Action of Light on Chlorine

Subjects:

Physics, Light

People mentioned:

Emil A Budde Budde, Emil Arnold (1842–1921) WBI
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[2] On the Effect of Temperature on the Prism in Distorting the Lines in the Spectrum

Subjects:

Spectroscopy


[3] Simple Method of Exhibiting Absorption Spectra

Subjects:

Spectroscopy, Display

People mentioned:

Eugen Lommel Lommel, Eugen (1837–99) WBI
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[4] The Solar Protuberances

Subjects:

Astronomy

People mentioned:

Angelo Secchi Secchi, Angelo (Pietro Angelo) (1818–78) DSB
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Issue [25] (1 December 1871)Expand    Contract

Section: Science

Academy,  2 (1870–71), 536–37.

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[Review of The Straits of the Baltic, by H A Meyer]

Keith Johnston Johnston, Alexander Keith, the younger (1844–79) ODNB
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Genre:

Review

Publications reviewed:

Meyer 1871 Meyer, H. A. 1871. Untersuchungen über physikalische Verhältnisse des westlichen Theiles der Ostsee. Ein Beitrag zur Physik des Meeres, Kiel: Schwers
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Subjects:

Oceanography, Physical Geography, Navigation, Government, Observation, Instruments, Meteorology

People mentioned:

William B Carpenter Carpenter, William Benjamin (1813–85) DSB
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    Remarks that the 'necessity of an accurate and complete knowledge of the physical geography of the sea [...] not only as an aid to navigation but as a preliminary to study of the distribution of marine life, is now so far recognised that systematic observations tending towards this end have become a part of the regular duty in British and American government vessels' (536).



Academy,  2 (1870–71), 538.

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[Review of A Synonymic Catalogue of Diurnal Lepidoptera, by William F Kirby]

A R Wallace Wallace, Alfred Russel (1823–1913) DSB
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Genre:

Review

Publications reviewed:

Kirby 1871 Kirby, William Forsell 1871. A Synonymic Catalogue of Diurnal Lepidoptera, London: John Van Voorst
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Subjects:

Entomology, Biogeography, Monographs, Publishing, Naturalists


Academy,  2 (1870–71), 538.

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The Alleged "Open Polar Sea". A Letter to the Editor of The Academy

C R Markham Markham, Sir Clements Robert (1830–1916) DSB
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Genre:

Letter

Subjects:

Exploration, Physical Geography, Oceanography, Discovery, Error

People mentioned:

Julius von Payer, Payer, Julius von (1842–1915) WBI
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Sherard Osborn, Osborn, Sherard (1822–75) ODNB
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August Petermann, Petermann, August (1822–78) ODNB
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Francis L McClintock McClintock, Sir Francis Leopold (1819–1907) ODNB
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See also:

Anon, '[1] The Open Polar Sea', Academy, 2 (1870–71), 499–500


Subsection: Scientific Notes

Academy,  2 (1870–71), 538–39.

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Physiology

Anon

Genre:

Regular Feature, News-Digest



[1] Respiration of Fish

Subjects:

Physiology


[2] Anatomy of the Brain

Subjects:

Anatomy, Neurology

People mentioned:

Saloman Stricker, Stricker, Saloman (1834–98) WBI
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Henry Power Power, Henry (1829–1911) WBI
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Publications cited:

Stricker 1870[–73] Stricker, Saloman, ed., assisted by J. Arnold [et al.] 1870–73. Manual of Human and Comparative Histology, trans. by Henry Power, 3 vols, London: New Sydenham Society
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[3] Circumstances Influencing the Size of the Red Blood Corpuscles

Subjects:

Physiology, Physiological Chemistry



Academy,  2 (1870–71), 539–40.

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Geology and Geography

Anon

Genre:

Regular Feature, News-Digest



[1] A Glacial Epoch at the Equator

Subjects:

Geology, Glaciology, Controversy

People mentioned:

James Orton, Orton, James (1830–77) DSB
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Louis Agassiz Agassiz, Louis (Jean Louis Rodolphe) (1807–73) DSB
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[2] A Pachypodous Reptile

Subjects:

Palaeontology, Comparative Anatomy

People mentioned:

Harry G Seeley, Seeley, Harry Govier (1839–1909) ODNB
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Thomas H Huxley Huxley, Thomas Henry (1825–95) DSB
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[3] Cretaceous Foraminifera

Subjects:

Geology


[4] The Recurrence of Glacial Phenomena During Great Continental Epochs

Subjects:

Geology, Stratigraphy

People mentioned:

Andrew C Ramsay Ramsay, Sir Andrew Crombie (1814–91) DSB
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[5] Classification of Fossil Crustacea

Subjects:

Palaeontology, Invertebrate Zoology, Taxonomy

People mentioned:

Henry Woodward Woodward, Henry (1832–1921) DNBS
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[6] An Extraordinary Crinoid

Subjects:

Palaeontology, Invertebrate Zoology


[7] Lofoden Islands

Subjects:

Geology, Mapping

People mentioned:

Edmund W Gosse Gosse, Sir Edmund William (1849–1928) ODNB
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Academy,  2 (1870–71), 540–41.

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Chemistry

Anon

Genre:

Regular Feature, News-Digest



[1] Meteoric Iron From Greenland

Subjects:

Mineralogy, Analytical Chemistry


[2] Synthesis of Mellitic Acid

Subjects:

Organic Chemistry


[3] Separation of Nickel From Copper by Electrolysis

Subjects:

Analytical Chemistry, Metallurgy


[4] Pucherite

Subjects:

Mineralogy, Mining


[5] The Shergotty Meteorite

Subjects:

Mineralogy, Analytical Chemistry


[6] A New Class of Platinum Compounds

Subjects:

Chemistry


[7] Methylation of the Phenyl Group in Aniline

Subjects:

Organic Chemistry


[8] Atomic Weights of Nickel and Cobalt

Subjects:

Chemistry, Measurement


[9] Melolonthine

Subjects:

Organic Chemistry



Academy,  2 (1870–71), 548.

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[Request by Prof A Geikie for Letters for a Biography of the late Sir R Murchison]

Anon

Genre:

Editorial, Miscellaneous

Subjects:

Scientific Practitioners, Geology, Monographs

People mentioned:

Archibald Geikie, Geikie, Sir Archibald (1835–1924) DSB DNB
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Roderick I Murchison Murchison, Sir Roderick Impey, 1st Baronet (1792–1871) DSBODNB
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Publications cited:

[Geikie 1875] Geikie, Archibald 1875. Life of Sir Roderick I. Murchison: Based on His Journals and Letters with Notices of his Scientific Contemporaries and a Sketch of the Rise and Growth of Palaeozoic Geology in Britain, 2 vols, London: J. Murray
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Issue [26] (15 December 1871)Expand    Contract

Section: Physical Science

Academy,  2 (1870–71), 559.

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Payer and Weyprecht's Arctic Voyage of 1871

K Johnston Johnston, Alexander Keith, the younger (1844–79) ODNB
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Genre:

News-Commentary

Subjects:

Exploration, Oceanography, Physical Geography, Navigation

People mentioned:

Karl Weyprecht, Weyprecht, Karl (1838–81) WBI
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Julius von Payer Payer, Julius von (1842–1915) WBI
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Subsection: Scientific Notes

Academy,  2 (1870–71), 559–60.

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Zoology

Anon

Genre:

Regular Feature, News-Digest



[1] Marine Pulmonibranch

Subjects:

Invertebrate Zoology, Anatomy

People mentioned:

Léon L Vaillant Vaillant, Léon Louis (b. 1834) WBI
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[2] Remarkable Lumbricid

Subjects:

Invertebrate Zoology, Sex


[3] Anatomy of Orthagoriscus

Subjects:

Zoology, Anatomy


[4] Development of the Brachiopoda

Subjects:

Invertebrate Zoology, Comparative Anatomy, Taxonomy

People mentioned:

Edward S Morse, Morse, Edward Sylvester (1838–1925) DSB
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Thomas H Huxley Huxley, Thomas Henry (1825–95) DSB
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[5] New Flagellate Infusoria

Subjects:

Invertebrate Zoology

People mentioned:

William S Kent Kent, William Saville (fl. 1875–80) WBI
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[6] An Interesting Crinoid

Subjects:

Invertebrate Zoology, Nomenclature, Imperialism

People mentioned:

Rawson W Rawson, Rawson, Sir Rawson William (1812–99) WBI
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John E Gray Gray, John Edward (1800–75) ODNB
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[7] [Some Cases of Suspected Poisoning]

Subjects:

Physiological Chemistry, Crime, Error


[8] [A New Periodical]

Subjects:

Periodicals, Science Communication

Publications cited:

Quarterly German Magazine Quarterly German Magazine (1871–73) BUCOP
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[9] [Prof Huxley on "Yeast"]

Subjects:

Microbiology

People mentioned:

Thomas H Huxley Huxley, Thomas Henry (1825–95) DSB
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[10] [Anton Dohrn on Darwinism in Germany]

Subjects:

Darwinism, Controversy

People mentioned:

Felix A Dohrn Dohrn, Felix Anton (1840–1909) DSB
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Academy,  2 (1870–71), 561.

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Botany

Anon

Genre:

Regular Feature, News-Digest



[1] Structure of Closed Self-Fertilised Flowers

Subjects:

Botany

People mentioned:

Alfred W Bennett Bennett, Alfred William (1833–1902) ODNB
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[2] Vitality of the Cambium Layer of Bark

Subjects:

Horticulture


[3] Selective Affinity of Plants

Subjects:

Horticulture, Observation

People mentioned:

Isaac Anderson-Henry Anderson-Henry (formerly Anderson), Isaac (1800–84) WBI
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Academy,  2 (1870–71), 561.

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Physics

Anon

Genre:

Regular Feature, News-Digest



[1] On the Maximum Density and Temperature of Congelation of Aqueous Alcohol

Subjects:

Physics


[2] Simple Method of Filling Barometer Tubes

Subjects:

Physics, Instruments


[3] Apparatus for Determining Melting Points

Subjects:

Physics



Section: Philology

Academy,  2 (1870–71), 565–68.

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On the Pronunciation of Latin. VI  [6/6]Alexander J Ellis, 'The Pronunciation of Latin. IV', Academy, 2 (1870–71), 230–32

Close

Max Müller, Oxford Max Müller, Friedrich (1823–1900) ODNB
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Genre:

Notes, Rejoinder, Serial

Subjects:

Physiology, Comparative Philology, Sound, Controversy


    Explains that 'Owing to my absence from England I was not able to follow the discussion on Latin pronunciation carried on chiefly in the pages of the Academy', and offers a belated contribution to that debate (565). Although avoiding 'purely physiological refinements', Müller accepts Ernst W von Brücke's Brücke, Ernst Wilhelm von (1819–92) DSB
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arguments and favours 'a dento-labial v', giving as the 'best proof of this [...] the fact that, though I have lived in England for a quarter of a century, I still am unable, as the best phonologists tell me, to pronounce the pure English w' (566).



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